diseases and conditions


Q: High LDH for years without a clear cause, what could that be?

Original question:

This has been high for a good 3 – 4 years now and even though I mention it to GP he doesn’t seem concerned ???, It even says Abnormal, need to speak to the doctor on the lab results at the top.

The answers:

The results show increased LDH test level, which can indicate many things from chronic inflammations, blood cells damages, tissue damages, and even tumors and cancers, and therefore it would be more than better if you got full checks to make it clearer and narrow the best diagnosis.

Another important notice is that:
Although the LDH values alone don’t indicate any specific disease, the different tissues have different LDH isoenzyme compositions.

  • The LDH-1 isoenzyme is found predominately in cardiac muscle,
  • LDH-2 is found primarily in the reticuloendothelial system,
  • LDH-3 predominates in the lungs,
  • LDH-4 in the kidneys
  • LDH-5 in the liver and skeletal muscle.

It would be so useful if you test for that isoenzymes to determine what is the source of tissue damage that leads to elevated LDH.

Other causes of unexplained high LDH may include: high LDH along with high CRP can predict inflammation, untreated bacterial or viral diseases also can explain why the LDH was increased, if the CBC test shows hemolytic anemia or blood tumor it can be a very clear explanation of chronic elevated LDH.

Therefore, I recommend a full body check with full blood investigations.

A Blood Test for Hepatitis

If you are looking for a blood test for hepatitis or liver inflammation, this article can help you.

Hepatitis panel includes testing for: Hepatitis A Virus Antibody, IgM test – This blood test detects hepatitis A antibodies. Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen test, and hepatitis C virus,

FDA-approved hepatitis B blood tests can detect acute hepatitis B infections, and can also be used to help diagnose chronic hepatitis B infections.

hepatitis day
World Hepatitis Day 28 July yellow red ribbon.

Viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis A (HAV), is diagnosed by your symptoms, a physical exam, blood tests, and  . Sometimes imaging studies such as a sonogram or CAT scan and a liver biopsy are also used. High Liver Function Tests Explained

Hepatitis A Test Results

A total antibody test detects both IgM and IgG antibodies but does not distinguish between them. If the total antibody test or hepatitis A IgG result is positive and someone has never been vaccinated against HAV, then the person has had past exposure to the virus.

Hepatitis A infection is typically diagnosed through blood tests. Fortunately, blood tests are widely available to accurately diagnose hepatitis A, including tests for antibodies, or the affected person’s immune response to hepatitis A proteins. The IgG antibodies are present for life, indicating immunity.

Treatment generally involves supportive care, with specific complications treated as appropriate. Liver transplantation, in selected cases, is an option if the patient has fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Patients at risk of developing acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection should undergo immunization for the virus. 


No specific treatment exists for hepatitis A. Your body will clear the hepatitis A virus on its own. In most cases of hepatitis A, the liver heals within six months with no lasting damage. Hepatitis A treatment usually focuses on keeping comfortable and controlling signs and symptoms.

It can take 15–50 days to develop symptoms (aver- age 28 days). People with hepatitis A virus infection might not have any signs or symptoms of the infec- tion. Adults are more likely to have symptoms than children. About 7 out of 10 adults have symptoms, while children less than age 6 years usually have no symptoms.

Hepatitis A Follow-up

  1. Take it easy; get plenty of rest.
  2. Drink plenty of clear fluids.
  3. Avoid alcoholic beverages.
  4. Avoid medicines such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) that can be harmful to the liver. How to test for liver function
  5. Avoid prolonged or vigorous physical exercise until your symptoms improve

Hepatitis B Test Results

A positive HBsAg test result means that you are infected and can spread the hepatitis B virus to others through your blood. anti-HBs or HBsAb (Hepatitis B surface antibody) – A “positive” or “reactive” anti-HBs (or HBsAb) test result indicates that a person is protected against the hepatitis B virus.

■ Anti-HBs Test [sometimes written as HBsAb] (antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen): when this is “positive” or “reactive,” it means the person is immune to hepatitis B infection, either from vaccination or from past infection. (This test is not done routinely by most blood banks on donated blood.) Hepatitis B virus antibodies HBsAg HBsAb HBcAb

Hepatitis B is a serious infection of the liver caused by a virus. Elevated liver enzymes. The virus is found in blood, semen, vaginal fluids and saliva. Hepatitis B is the only sexually transmitted disease that has a safe and effective vaccine to protect against infection.

Hepatitis B Treatment options
Hepatitis B vaccines that are available nowadays
Pegylated interferon
Tenofovir alafenamide

Hepatitis C virus Test Results

The Hepatitis C virus is considered “cured” if the virus is not detected in your blood when measured with a blood test 3 months after treatment is completed. This is called a sustained virologic response (SVR) and data suggest that you will stay virus free indefinitely.

Hepatitis C tests are a group of tests that are performed to detect, diagnose, and monitor the treatment of a hepatitis C viral infection. The most common test for HCV looks for antibodies in the blood that are produced in response to an HCVinfection.

Hepatitis C (HCV) is spread through contact with an infected person’s blood — which may be present because of genital sores or cuts or menstruation.HCV has been detected with greater-than-average frequency among people who have a history of sexual promiscuity — which can be defined as a history of a sexually

A Hep C test cost

The estimated cost per true positive IDU who returned for test results was $54. The cost-effectiveness of expanding HCV CTR to non-IDU subgroups ranged from $179 to $2,986. Our estimates were most sensitive to variations in HCV prevalence, the cost of testing, and the rate of client return.

New Treatment for Hepatitis C Virus

Simeprevir (Olysio) and sofosbuvir (Sovaldi): The FDA said these two drugs could be given together to treat people with HCV type 1. Before that, you had to take the pills with interferon or ribavirin. Sofosbuvir can cause fatigue, headache, and tummy troubles and make it hard for you to sleep.

Prothrombin Test

Prothrombin time. … The “prothrombin time” (PT) is one way of measuring how long it takes blood to form a clot, and it is measured in seconds (such as 13.2 seconds). A normal PT indicates that a normal amount of blood-clotting protein is available.

A normal INR is 1.0. Each increase of 0.1 means the blood is slightly thinner (it takes longer to clot). INR is related to the prothrombin time (PT). If there is serious liver disease and cirrhosis, the liver may not produce the normal amount of proteins and then the blood is not able to clot normally. INR test results

Does an ANA blood test show the number of white and red blood cells ?

White blood cell counts can be low (leukopenia) due to lupus, immunosuppressive therapy, or the presence of a virus. … Low red blood cell counts can indicate anemiacaused by bleeding, medications, “chronic disease,” autoimmune hemolytic anemia (breakdown of RBCs due to auto-antibodies), or a vitamin deficiency.

18400 TLC is Normal/high in 2 Year Baby, fever over 100?

Our doctors reviewed you question, here’s the detailed answer for you.
As previously stated that the normal total leucocyte count for babies more than 2 years and less than 6 years is:

5000-15000 *10^3/ul

You can review the full chart for Complete blood count normal ranges for 2-6 years old baby
According to the normal reference range for such age, we can tell that your baby has “mild leucocytosis”.
leucocytosis is a medical condition where the white cells count is out of normal range.
But in medical words we can see that the number 18000 is too small in such age to be a cause of cancer or something terrible.
As you have to know that elevated white blood cell count is a sign of inflammation as a normal response of our immune system to fight infection for instance, also hyperthermia (fever) is another aspects of normal body response in such emergency situations.
May be a flu, doctor may swab his nose to do a flu test, but if came negative we must think about other causes…
The possible causes of mild leucocytosis are:

  1. Eosinophilia. … Other parasitic infections that cause tissue invasion also cause marked eosinophilia.

Other infections: Scarlet fever (recovery phase),
viral infections (recovery phase),
and chlamydial infection cause an absolute increase in eosinophils but generally do not cause leukocytosis
2. Urinary tract infection and pneumonia due to other organisms are more prevalent in infants with fever and typically cause less leukocytosis than an infection with S pneumoniae (a type of bacteria cause Pneumococcal disease).
Recommendations: urinalysis, stool examination test, culture and sensitivity test for urine and stool
3. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA), but it less likely if the fever is mild and the TLC is still low, JRA may cause TLC to go as high as 60000,
we recommend you to undergo blood work (RF test, high ESR , Strep test), xrays, mri’s and even spinal taps.

What pediatrician can tell about high TLC and fever in a baby?

Pediatrician doctor may ask to record baby’s body temperature daily and make a chart from fever levels to know the trend of elevations.
Also, flu test must be done.
Notice any change in the baby’s appetite, cough, if there’s wet or dirty diapers, that can be a symptom of diarrhea and infection.
May order urine test and stool examination to exclude infection with UTI, then he may prescribe antibiotics (a dose of ceftraiaxone injection IP)to kill the infecting bacteria, also Tylenol and Motrin to lower fever.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA), especially if Tylenol and Motrin did not bring down the baby’s fever (fever over 100), and often had to have ice baths to bring them down.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis treatment is a regime of baby aspirin and for more than 1 month, it shouldn’t happen again.
fever chart for a baby
Note that:
Be careful when give kids any antibiotics as it the dose calculated upon the weight of baby, once reoccurence of fever is subsided you can start a special protein-rich diet.
Always you must notice and record biological signs and changes on your baby’s body in order to make early detection of any disease and away any harm to your precious babies.