Normal Lab Values

Cortisol levels Chart Throughout the Day in Blood and Urine

As the cortisol hormone level changes during the day, we listed below the Normal ranges used by medical laboratories to measure how normal or abnormal the cortisol result is?

Also, Laboratories may use different measuring units to express the concentration of cortisol, so that we ease the results and list the most common units to express the cortisol numbers, in conventional and SI units.

Normal Cortisol Levels in Plasma For Adults in μg/dL

Testing TimeCortisol Level
8 AM–10 AM 5 – 23 μg/dL
4 PM–6 PM 3 – 13 μg/dL

Normal Cortisol Levels in Plasma For Children in μg/dL

Testing TimeCortisol Level
8 AM–10 AM 15 – 25 μg/dL
4 PM–6 PM 5 – 10 μg/dL

Normal Cortisol Levels in Plasma For Adults in nmol/L

Testing TimeCortisol Level
Morning 8 AM–10 AM 138 – 635 nmol/L
Evening 4 PM–6 PM 83 – 359 nmol/L

Normal Cortisol Levels in Plasma For Children in nmol/L

Testing TimeCortisol Level
Morning 8 AM–10 AM 413 – 690 nmol/L
Evening 4 PM–6 PM 140 – 280 nmol/L

Normal Cortisol Levels in Plasma in nmol/L

Testing TimeCortisol Level
Morning 9 AM170 – 420 nmol/L
Evening 4 PM–6 PM 83 – 360 nmol/L

What Do Normal Cortisol Levels Mean?

The interpretation of cortisol level from a medical perspective,

At the morning cortisol level should be higher than any other time, the reason is to help human body get more energy by delivering more fat and glucose to the body cells, however, as the day going on the body get tired and going to the rest status, hence the adrenal gland tend to secrete lower amount of cortisol.

Meaning of cortisol reference range:

Medical Scientists set two limits that cortisol level should be inside whenever the time be the morning, afternoon or evening.

Measuring units and concentration expressions for cortisol reading

Mmol/L is a short form of Milli-mol cortisol per one liter of blood.

nmol/L is a short form of nano-mol of cortisol per one liter of blood.

Concentration doesn’t mean the whole amount of cortisol in our bodies but the amount in a single volume of blood, and Yes it’s helpful for doctors to know the cortisol levels.

If you have cortisol results and need to get professional insights, please send us your results privately or in comments, we promise high-value medical information.

Approved Normal Platelet Count by Age

Normal platelet count chart set by scientists who have studied the normal range of blood platelets in different parts of the world.
Blood samples of different ages have been used to determine the effect of age and sex on the normal level of platelets in our bloodstream.
There’re abnormal blood platelet counts is caused by cancers of bone marrow while other causes could be a result of errors in coagulation process of blood.
At the end you can ask as you like and we welcome to sincerely answering you.

Platelets Count Normal Range Chart by Age

Platelets count range chart according to age and gender:

  • Normal Platelet Count for Newborn infants
  • Platelet Normal Range in Child (176–452)
  • Platelets normal level for adult men (141–362)
  • Normal Platelet Count for female adults (156–405)
  • For old men normal platelets range (122–350) and, old women range (140–379).

Studies confirm these facts about platelet level in human blood:
Concentration of platelets in blood samples drawn from children ranging from 170 to 450.
Children and the elderly have fewer platelets compared to adult women and men.
counting blood platelets in adult women is greater than counting platelets in adult men.
The normal range of platelets in human blood is almost constant until the age of 14 in children, while it becomes stable in adulthood, while the normal range is lower in older persons of both sexes.
The normal range of platelets is about 30% lower in old age than in early childhood.

Visual chart of normal blood platelets levels by age and gender
Visual chart of normal blood platelets levels by age and gender

What does it mean when platelets count is normal in blood test?

The most approved stable blood platelet level is 140 – 450 for all ages and sexes, however some variations may exist.
These numbers mean:
A man of age 30 must have platelets count no less than 140 to avoid thrombocytopenia (lack of platelets in blood), however platelets shouldn’t exceed 370 to avoid thrombocytosis (over count of blood platelets.

Platelets count of a child in the age 6 and 7 years should be between (176–452) to be normal count and exclude thrombotic diseases related to platelets deficiency.
Normal Platelet Count for teenager 14 years must be a value from 176 to 452 to be considered healthy.
For instance: PLT count 400 is high count but still within preset normal levels.

What causes blood platelet to be normal in count and morphology?

when body has no disease affect the platelets count we must not see reduced count or elevated numbers, but some genetic diseases which is inherited by parent can revolve abnormal Plt count without obvious know disease.

Do morphological changes of platelets affect the counting?

Platelets are tiny small blood cells (1.5-3 μm) which is smaller than red blood cells, also normal blood cell count is by million while platelets is by thousands.

According too these science facts and by automatic counters:
Larger platelets in volume count as RBCs by mistake and results in lower Plt count than the real, while very small Platelets in volume and red blood cells fragments are falsely counted as excessive platelets over the real count.

Mean platelets volume is a parameter used by automatic cell counter to define the error in platelet counting process, read more details here> What is MPV Blood Test?

Also, other useful functions to know the normal platelets volumes are: platelets distribution width (PDW) and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR), they used to make a clear distinction between hyperdestructive thrombocytopenia and hypoproductive thrombocytopenia,
More about PDW and P-LCR come next week, please follow us.

What to do to keep platelets count normal?

You should consume foods rich in vitamin B12 include beef, chicken liver, salmon, tuna, yogurt and turkey.
However folate-rich foods include beans. lentils, spinach, asparagus, avocado and beets.
Vit. B12 and folate supplements help raise low platelets count and help bone marrow to produce healthy adequate platelet count.

What diseases caused by abnormal platelets count?

Examples of such conditions include:

  • Thrombocytopenia caused by pregnancy is usually mild and improves soon after childbirth.
  • Immune thrombocytopenia.
  • Bacteria in the blood.
  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome.
  • Medications can reduce normal blood platelets.
  • High platelet counts seen in blood of those with a disease called reactive thrombocytosis or secondary thrombocythemia when it’s caused by an underlying condition, such as an infection.
  • Excessive bleeding time and prolonged clotting time are caused by inadequate platelet count.

I took a blood test and I have a high platelet count of 750,000, Do I have cancer?
Slightly high platelet count on blood test, should i concerned?
I have a platelet count of 124 for 3 years. I have all tests done, what could be a cause?
Platelet count of 119 what does this mean?
Is 455 bad or serious for a platelet count of a blood test?
Low platelet count (96), why?
Still don’t understand or feeling lost? for more questions and explanations, we welcome free questions in our forum.

Iron Blood Test and Normal Iron Levels Chart by Age

A quick summary of iron blood test:

  • Serum iron blood test measures how much iron inside the body.
  • Ferritin test measures how much iron is stored inside cells.
  • TIBC test (total iron-binding capacity) measures all proteins needed to link iron including transferrin (means the total transferring available).
  • UIBC test (unsaturated iron-binding capacity) measures how much iron for saturation of transferrin.
  • Transferrin saturation is a calculated percentage to tell how much transferrin is full with iron.
  • Morning iron is higher than the rest of the day’s iron levels by 30%.
  • 67% of the body’s iron is inside hemoglobin in red blood cells, other iron is bound to transferrin in blood or ferritin in bone marrow, or stored in more body tissues.
  • 3.5% of the total iron in the body is inside Muscles as myoglobin.
  • 27% of all iron inside cells are stored in Ferritin & hemosiderin.
  • Children and women need more of iron than adult men that’s because children need iron for growth, also woman has menses bleeding every month.

Did You know: What does anemic mean?

Sorry Iron tests is a long story, please bookmark this page and read carefully to understand your case better.

What causes iron deficiency?

You have iron deficiency anemia when your lab results are lower than normal levels as seen in iron blood test results.
Causes of shortage of iron in the body include:

  1. Body lose iron through excessive urination, exfoliating of old skin cells, defecation, and sweating.
  2. Poor diets that has insufficient iron and essential elements.
  3. Imbalanced diet and vegetarian diets only contain non-heme iron, which is difficult for absorption.
  4. Iron uptake problem when you have stomach or intestine diseases.
  5. Losing Iron through intended blood loss through heavy bleeding, injuries, during surgery, or repeated blood drawings.
  6. High demand for iron during pregnancy, breastfeeding, adolescence, and bodybuilding programs.
  7. Excess loss of iron through monthly bleeding in women, gastrointestinal bleeding through ulcers and cancers.

How doctors write iron tests?
Doctors usually write: Fe Tests, Iron Indices, iron test, iron panel, Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++, Ferrous ion, ferrous test, Iron – serum; Anemia – serum iron; Hemochromatosis – serum iron
Iron tests panel include: Serum Iron, Ferritin; TIBC, UIBC and Transferrin; Zinc Protoporphyrin; Complete Blood Count; Hemoglobin; Hematocrit; Reticulocyte Count; Soluble Transferrin Receptor

When to do iron tests?
If you’re complaining of one or more of the following, then you should test for iron deficiency:

  • Fatigue and unexplained weakness are common signs you should test iron.
  • Pale skin, a tingling or crawling feeling in the legs, shortness of breath, and dizziness are signs of severe anemia and marked iron shortage.
  • When a child has strange cravings to eat non-food items, I mean dirt, ice, or clay then it’s the time to know how much iron your kid has.

What is serum iron in blood test?
Serum iron is a medical laboratory test means how much total iron is in your blood, for best evaluation of body’s content of iron the doctor must request all anemia test including; serum iron, TIBC, Ferritin, transferrin, and transferrin saturation tests.
Do you have to fast for an iron blood test?
Here’s what to do before taking a blood test for iron:

  • 8 hours fasting before a blood test for iron, TIBC, or transferrin.
  • Ferritin test don’t need fasting before taking it.
  • Pause iron pills 24 hours before testing time.

Read: all fasting blood test lists.
When to take iron blood test during the day?

  • The best time to do iron tests is in the morning, when iron levels are at highest levels.
  • Serum Iron level has diurnal variation. Morning iron levels are 30% higher than the whole day iron levels, because of Iron fluctuations during the day, serum iron test need more medical tests in order to indicate anemia.
  • Full list: when to take a blood test?

What is the difference between iron and hemoglobin?
In a brief, hemoglobin consists of four iron atoms. Anemia diagnosis made upon measuring the levels of hemoglobin and iron together along with other diagnostic tests.

  • Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries inhaled oxygen from the lungs to the all organs, and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs to exhale.
  • Consists of four protein molecules connected with four atoms of iron that can bind four atoms of oxygen.
  • Iron is a trace element inside the red blood cells and other organs.
  • Building hemoglobin during red cells production process that called hematopoiesis needs Iron.
  • Iron mediates many other biochemical reactions in the body.

Have a look at: Normal hemoglobin levels

Normal Iron Levels Chart by Age

Explain: What is a normal iron level in blood test? what should your iron level be
Normal Ranges for Iron Tests Commonly Used to Assess Anemia (same for male and female, except noted)

Test Normal Ranges Ranges in SI units
Serum Iron for Adult men 70-175 mcg/dL 12.5-31.3 mcmol/L
Serum Iron for Adult women 50-150 mcg/dL 8.9-26.8 mcmol/L
Serum Iron for children 6 mo-2 yr 50-120 mcg/dL 9.0-21.5 mcmol/L
Total iron-binding capacity 250-460 µg/dL 45 – 82 µmol/L
Percent Transferrin saturation for male Male: 30 – 50%
Percent Transferrin saturation for female Female: 20 – 35%
Serum Transferrin 200 – 430 mg/dL 2 – 3.8 g/L
Serum ferritin, male 15-400 ng/mL
Serum ferritin, female 10-106 ng/mL
Serum ferritin, child elder than 1 7 – 140 ng/mL
Free serum hemoglobin 0-10 mg/dL

What causes high iron in the blood test?

Hemochromatosis means too much iron in the body and results are higher than normal ranges.
If the test is correct, the too much iron in the body can make iron toxicity, common causes

  1. Too much blood transfusions will cause iron level decline.
  2. Hemolytic anemia: too much red blood cells destruction.
  3. Cirrhosis or necrosis: Liver tissue death.
  4. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver.
  5. Iron poisoning and more serious complications in people taking iron to lower stress.

Difference between Hemosiderosis and hemochromatosis
Both are iron overload disorders:

  • Hemosidrosis is abnormal deposition of hemosiderin in tissues. Hemosiderin is an iron-containing compound. It’s often associated with frequent blood transfusions in addition to extensive destruction of red blood cells such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
  • Hemochromatosis is an inherited or acquired iron metabolism disorder. Means that the body accumulates more iron than its need and can’t excrete the excess iron, leading to iron overload and dysfunction or failure of several organs; including heart, liver, pancreas. Hemochromatosis increases skin pigmentation that called “bronzing.”

What is the role of Iron in the Body?
Human being depends on a sufficient amount of iron that is must be circulating in our blood stream, iron is needed for:

  1. Moving oxygen around your body, and transport carbon dioxide back to exhalation from lungs.
  2. Haematopoiesis, which is the building process of RBC specifically used inside hemoglobin.
  3. In the conversion of blood sugar to energy, which benefits athlete muscles during exercises.
  4. The production of enzymes inside cells.
  5. Iron contributes to normal cognitive function in children and immune system depends on iron.

What do iron blood test results mean?

The common question between clinicians, medical students, and most people is; what does iron blood test results mean?
What’s the relationship between Iron, ferritin, TIBC, transferrin, and TRSF saturation?

Here’s a clarification based on medical consultations.
Iron and ferritin results meaning:

  • If Iron levels increase, ferritin level increase and transferrin level decrease.
  • If Iron levels decrease, ferritin level decrease and transferrin level increase.

The total iron-binding capacity
It is the amount of iron that is in demand to fully saturate transferrin.

  • Normal TIBC value means 100% transferrin saturation with available iron.
  • Total iron-binding capacity short form is TIBC.
  • TIBC result is a useful marker in diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia and iron deficiency due to chronic disease,
  • Elevated TIBC is an indicative of iron deficiency anemia (IDA).
  • Low TIBC is a marker of anemia that is due to chronic disease.

UIBC is the unsaturated iron binding capacityrepresents the additional amount of iron that can be bound or the empty sites from iron on transferrin protein.
UIBC calculation from the equation: UIBC = TIBC – iron
Transferrin Saturation Percentage is a medical laboratory value represents the saturation ratio of transferrin with iron atoms in the serum.

  • Transferrin Saturation equation: Transferrin Saturation % = ( Serum iron x 100 )/ TIBC
    The actual amount of iron found on transferrin (serum iron) divided by the total amount of iron fully saturated the transferrin (TIBC)
  • The normal range of transferrin saturation % is 20 – 50%.

What does Transferrin saturation% resultss mean?

  • Transferrin saturation% means how much serum iron has links with transferrin.
  • According to normal range, it is normal that the ratio of iron bound to transferrin protein in normal conditions is 20 – 50%, means that 50-70% of transferrin sites normally do not contain iron (empty, unsaturated sites)
  • If Transferrin saturation is less than 20%, then the iron deficiency is more likely.
  • If Transferrin saturation is more than 50%, then the iron overload is more likely.

Example of clarification:
If we assume that transferrin has 200 sites to bind the amount of iron.
If the transferrin has 50 iron atoms bound, and 150 of the sites are empty or not attached to any iron atom, this means that:

  • 50% is the ratio of iron bound to transferrin in the blood = serum Iron value.
  • 25% is the ratio of saturated iron = Transferrin Saturation %.
  • 150 is the empty sites of iron on transferrin = UIBC
  • 200 is the iron required to 100% saturation of transferrin = TIBC

Mentzer index

  • Medical Lab equation.
  • Used for differentiation between iron deficiency anemia and Mediterranean anemia.
  • Mentzer index formula = MCV/ RBCs count

What do Mentzer results mean?

  • Mentzer index that is greater than 13, thus iron deficiency anaemia is more likely.
  • If Mentzer index is lower than 13, thus beta thalassemia is more likely.

Blood tests for anemia include:

  • Complete blood count: includes hemoglobin, hematocrit that means the mass of red blood cells, and red cells count.
  • CBC test includes 4 RBC’s estimated parameters: MCV that represents the size of cells, MCH that means the mass of hemoglobin in all RBCs, MCHC that reflects the density of hemoglobin in each RBC, and RDW estimates the distribution of RBC’s sizes.
  • CBC test is test of choice to monitor anemia level.
  • low hemoglobin levels and low hematocrit means Anemia.
  • Doctors usually request iron blood test after discovering there is anemia in CBC results.

Haven’t know What is RBC?
Reticulocyte count (Retics):

  • Measures absolute count or percentage of reticulocytes in a stained smear of a blood sample.
  • The final stage of immature red blood cells is the Reticulocytes.
  • Reticulocytes count means how much bone marrow is compensating red cells loss.

What does reticulocyte count results mean?

  • Low Reticulocyte count in iron deficiency anemia and increase to the normal range after a course of treatment.
  • High Reticulocyte count in hemolytic anemia.

What is your Iron blood test results?

Normal WBC Count (WBC Count Range Chart)

Normal WBC count depends on the age and pregnancy in humans, to get the best interpretation, you must compare your WBC value to the Normal WBC count range which is on the right of your CBC blood test report.

  • WBC is: a medical term for “white blood cells”, white cells also called “Leucocytes”
  • Leucocytes is a general medical term for many blood cells that differ in their morphology and specific function, however all WBCs are made for body defense against microbes.
  • Automatic analyzers in most laboratories around the world can count the total WBC count precisely, thus the one can get the most accurate WBC count in CBC results.
  • Total WBC Count (TWC) or Total leucocytes count (TLC) is the total count of white blood cells in a blood sample.
  • Normal WBC count: is any value within a reference range, which is defined by hematologists and different labs.
  • High Leucocytes Count is leucocytosis.
  • Low Leucocytes Count is Leucopenia.

What does Normal WBC count mean?

Normal WBC count at birth is the highest count during the human life, this is due to activity of bone marrow at birth and to immunize the neonate upon birth, see normal CBC value in newborn, normal count range of white blood cells continue to be low as we go in the age until puberty, WBC count range elevated in the middle of pregnancy around 12 – 28th week LMP, read the complete CBC for pregnancy.
wbc count
A well defined table for accepted and allowed reference ranges for WBC count in different ages.
Table includes:

  • WBC normal count ranges for children: age 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 years old.
  • WBC normal count ranges for teenager male and female: age 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 20 years old.
  • Normal WBC count range for Adult man and women in pregnancy and non-pregnant female.
Age Normal Count Range أ—10^3/MCL
At Birth 1,000 – 26,000
1- 3 Days Newborn 7,000 – 23,000
1 Week Newborn 6,000 – 21,000
3 – 9 Months Toddlers 5,000 – 10,000
9 – 12 Months Toddlers 6,000 – 17,500
1 – 2 Years Kid’s 6,000 – 16,000
2 – 6 Years Children 5,000 – 15,000
6 – 12 Years Children 4,500 – 14,500
12 – 18 years Adult Male 4,500 – 13,000
12 – Years Adult female 4,500 – 13,000
Adult Man 4,000 – 11,000
Adult Woman (non-Pregnant) 4,000 – 11,000
Pregnancy 1 – 12th Week 5,000 – 13,000
Pregnancy 13 – 28th Week 6,200 – 14,800
Pregnancy 29 – 40th week 5,000- 13,000

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