Blood Tests For Cancer

Elevated PSA (High PSA levels 10,12,14,25,100), does it mean a cancer?

If you want to be a prostate cancer survival, just learn the meaning of elevated PSA levels and how to deal with them carefully to lower the time of waiting and monitoring the cancer, get your prostate to a workable level and safe your life.
PSA is just a blood test that shows that a specific agent is present in your blood, PSA is one of the best early tumor marker till now, it comes up with accurate results. see more blood tests for cancer
By reading the next paragraphs you must be able to recognize What is elevated PSA levels? and What does it mean? How to differentiate between elevated PSA by Prostatitis and High PSA by BPH or Adenocarcinoma.

High Elevated PSA Levels Chart

  1. The meaning of borderline PSA results:

Moderate risk for cancer can be shown at any PSA level over 4, that’s why PSA never be made as a diagnostic test for prostate cancer, but to identify men in whom a prostate biopsy would be appropriate.
The PSA values over 10 is a moderate cancer marker and moderate indicator of prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or hepatitis A, the presence of an indwelling catheter can come with slightly elevated PSA results too. So that elevated PSA can be in many prostate diseases. Usually prostate enlarged when PSA is highly elevated, but borderline PSA and Slightly increased PSA show a normal sized prostate, diagnosis is confirmed only after biopsy report (Benign or Malignant).
Level of PSA means the chances of prostate cancer
When prostate feels normal on examination of a man rectum and PSA result is lower than 4.0, there’s a 15% chance of having prostate cancer. While men got a PSA between four and 10 there’s a 25% chance of having prostate cancer and if PSA result is higher than 10, the risk increases up to 70%, and so on.
What is meaning of elevated PSA levels and no cancer?
Rigorous activities such as riding bicycles can result in grey PSA counts 4, 5, etc. or slightly high PSA results such as 10.5, 11, or 12. After examination of rectum the PSA levels show a bit higher than normal, after catheter in men PSA come up with increased counts, after prostate surgery it’s common to see elevated levels for a period.
2. The meaning of moderate elevated PSA
Does high PSA test results means cancer or not?
In other queries, what is a high PSA level for prostate cancer?, does a high PSA always mean cancer?
Studies told us that elevated PSA does always mean a prostate malignancy and here is:
A PSA levels chart against Free PSA percentages:
High PSA total and high PSA free mean either abnormally produced (complexed PSA) or the normally produced Free PSA. But the facts tell us the free PSA is the benign form produced by the prostate gland cells and exists in the blood circulation in a very low amount, thus the increase in both free and total may be due to cancer or another abnormality in production excretion functions as in BPH.
High PSA total and normal PSA free mean the increase in total PSA is from increased complexed PSA. Very likely to predict prostate cancer.
Low PSA total and low Free PSA together mean; you are on treatment from a cancer or have a cancer which preventing the production function of prostate cells.
Borderline PSA total and borderline PSA free, mean a suspicion of cancer at early stage or just an inflammation can go away with a course of medication.
What does it mean when PSA level 12 or 14? is it high?
As PSA level 10 is the baseline of PSA blood test results, any value over 10 is considered suspicious and need another confirmation by a blood test named “Free PSA”, then DRE, then the doctor has to decide whether to wait and watch the PSA levels until it back to normal range or decide to take a prostate biopsy.
If the results show a higher free PSA percentage means that the PSA elevation is due to benign tumor of prostate gland not a cancer.
Similarly, with PSA 16 it’s a marker of prostatitis than a marker of cancer unless the values increases steadily and the Free PSA is reduced.
Total PSA is 25, is it a cancer in my prostate?
As all studies said, PSA level 25 means a strong cancer marker but no further decisions until the biopsy confirm that. Note that, free PSA test at such levels of total PSA will not be as useful as the biopsy process.elevated psa levels meaning

       3. The meaning of Very highly Elevated PSA

PSA 1000, is it possible, does it mean the man’s death?
First you have to confirm the lab result when it is above the normal limits.
PSA levels 100+. Often show when Patients have advanced or metastatic prostate cancer.
Very high PSA level usually mean strong indicator of multinodular prostate cancer and removal after biopsy.
What is the PSA level to remove prostate?
Prostate cancer removal depends on the pathological report of a biopsy taken from your prostate gland to decide the extension, shape, volume, and properties of the suspected cancerous cells, PSA are only used to monitor the progress of suspicious cells, then decide a biopsy procedure. However, highly elevated PSA total with low free PSA levels is a strong prostate cancer marker and a result required fast medical decision.
Elevated High PSA after prostatectomy?
A careful handling of PSA values after prostate removal is must,
after prostatectomy you must wait for about six weeks to take a blood PSA test, because PSA levels are commonly show elevated after surgery, but it’s a false PSA result, however repeating the test after some weeks can declare if it’s just false or it may a cause of incomplete surgery or dangerous remnants of cancer cell.
Now I think you understanding what does a high PSA test mean?
Don’t miss, What should my PSA level be in my previous interpretation about Normal PSA Levels
 

Normal PSA Levels (PSA Level 4,5,6,7,8,9) Explained

We are talking about what is considered from normal PSA levels and what is considered abnormal PSA test results.
What should a man’s PSA be?
Remember that PSA is a blood test for cancer of prostate, and the most specific early tumor marker for prostate, PSA results is accurate 99.99%.
What is the safe acceptable PSA range?
Prostate gland cells produce prostate specific antigen for liquefying the human semen, all PSA amount is excreted into seminal fluid except very small amount which escape to the blood stream, normally PSA found in the blood with a steady low level, the Normal PSA physiologically is to show PSA results less than 4.0, the less is better, and this means healthy production and healthy excretion of Prostate specific antigen by the prostate gland.
What is Normal PSA levels and normal range?
Normal range for PSA results in young men is 4 – 10, in elder men is slightly higher.
In order to know the correct interpretation of PSA blood test results, you must know the values caused by a cancer and the values caused by other reasons.
There is agreement on the normal PSA levels of men as follows:
Normal PSA level is from 4.0 – 10.0 ng/ml, sometimes called “the grey zone”.
Is an indicator of prostate cancer (25% chance, according to the ACS), or other benign condition in the elderly such as benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), or just inflammation of the prostate.
Free PSA blood test is required for confirmation whether it’s a cancer or not.

What should my free PSA level be?

Free PSA is the form of prostate specific antigen that is produced by benign cells of prostate gland, finding 10% of total PSA as Free is acceptable for healthy men. The lower the riskier.
Benign prostate tumors normally show Free PSA percentage higher than 10%.
Carcinogen cells reducing free PSA percentage to less than 10% and raise the values of total PSA due to the increasing of complexed PSA by cancer cells, from PSA blood test explained
Low PSA level, what does it mean?
The normal PSA level is 0 but it can rise to up 4 with infection or other minor issues.
A PSA of 0.6 is good and would not normally need further blood tests.
PSA 1.0 is lower than men limit of PSA but is still not a cancer marker.
If you have prostate cancer already and have had treatment, then 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 is still nothing serious to worry about.
The same is applied for PSA 2.0 or 3.0: means you’re a cancer free or have your treatment course succeeded and lowered the PSA percentage.
A problem with prostate production of prostate specific antigen can lead to very low PSA level.
Diminished free PSA with normal PSA total is not fully understood.

Normal PSA levels chart by numbers and age

Here is simple explanation of normal values of prostate specific antigen, according to many studies on men with cancers and other men without a cancer. Show list of: blood test for cancer?normal psa levels
PSA level 4, what does it mean?
PSA 4 is a cutoff value for men, and the lower limit of normal PSA levels, usually means nothing.
PSA level 4 is either normal or abnormal level and it could mean many things, including:
You’re a normal, and your PSA level is acceptable, nothing to worry about.
Men who have their prostate gland feels normal on digital examination and their PSA level 4, they are likely to have prostate cancer with a percentage less than 15% and non-cancerous causes with a percentage of more than 85%
You are on cancer treatment which lowering your PSA results.
You have a mild infection to your prostate gland, a course of antibiotics is recommended to exclude UTI causes.
PSA level 5, what does it mean?
Men who have a prostate gland that feels normal after digital rectal examination and a PSA from four to ten have a 25% chance of having prostate cancer. And more than 75% chances of another non-cancerous causes.
Is a PSA level of 5 high?
Firstly, testing procedure is preferred to done at one laboratory at each time, as the normal value may vary among different assays.
Secondly, to evaluate the meaning of PSA count 5, we must look to the age of the man, if older than 40 then level 5 may be normal for such age
But values above 4.0 are considered suspicious PSA count as the normal PSA values does not exclude cancer.
A watchful period starts, and you are recommended to do PSA blood testing periodically to ensure that the results stay at this low level or increasing.
Now you know that is PSA 5 is form the normal PSA levels and not a high PSA level, and you have not to be concerned about getting cancer, especially when you under age 40 and has no cancer history in your family.
If Yes, then confirm the test results by repeating the PSA test many time over 3 months, then free PSA test to confirm the increasing numbers of total PSA test, if ALL that say Yes, then a biopsy sent to a pathologist is must.
What is the meaning of PSA level 6?
The PSA level 6 is a grey zone number, however the men over 50 may show PSA 6 as their normal value due to their advanced age.
PSA 6 has many other possibilities:
Infection to prostate gland, as the PSA still under level 10.
PSA 6 after repetition of the blood test mean physiological causes and not a cancer marker.
Bacterial infection which begins in the urinary system can cause slightly elevated PSA results, a urine test and DRE is recommended.
PSA level 7 and PSA level 8 meaning:
PSA levels over 6 and under 10 including the PSA 9.0 is very tricky results, need to be handled carefully, a clever doctor must order both free PSA test and PSA test, the laboratory report come with a calculated FREE PSA/total PSA ratio, a ratio which used as a strong marker for prostate cancer and help to decide if biopsy is needed or not?
However benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in elders may show PSA level of 7 or 9 as well in early stage.
Non-pathological causes show raised PSA levels as after sexual ejaculation which normally increase the chance of PSA entering blood circulation.
After DRE also a sensitization is made on the gland to excrete semen, which not a marker of a disease and can be mistaken.
Catheter installation or removal can cause slightly raised serum prostate specific antigen and thus a false result.
Conclusion:
Normal PSA levels are values that must be taken carefully, interpretation of normal ranges must be with the correlation of other confirmatory tests and exams. however annual checkup is recommended.
Low PSA level below 4.0 ng/ml does not indicate the presence of prostate cancer or not.
High PSA levels over 10.0 ng/ml is an indicator of the presence of prostate cancer with 50% chance according to ACS.
A PSA level of 10-14 may be due to an inflamed prostate and not a cancer marker unless the biopsy results show other than that.
The explanations in this article written for ordinary people who need help to understand their blood test results, while they are on their way for diagnosis or treatment by a specialist, not for medical student.
Next is: What does borderline PSA levels mean?
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All PSA Blood Test and Free PSA Test Explained

Are you confused and anxious about PSA blood test result? so I would like to give you advice if you have a risk of a prostate cancer or not?
PSA is important indicator for prediction of prostate cancer and the tumor marker of choice, and we will go further in explaining how PSA assess prostate cancer.
What does PSA mean?
PSA meaning is a medical term for Prostate-Specific Antigen.
What is a PSA test?

  • PSA is a blood test for measuring Prostate-Specific Antigen, the protein liquefying human semen.
  • PSA test is different than the DRE test which is a rectal examination by a healthcare practitioner finger.
  • PSA Lab name is: serum prostate specific antigen (PSA test)
  • PSA blood test is used for early detection of abnormal prostate cells such as in benign prostate hyperplasia(BPH) or prostate cancer, Blood tests for tumor markers

Does PSA test require fasting or other precautions?
Sampling requirements: no ejaculation 24-hour prior sampling, no DRE or biopsies after the PSA test to avoid false PSA results.
No Fasting is required prior taking a blood sample for PSA blood test.
PSA test results can be obtained by a home PSA test or get tested at the doctor office as well.
When to take a blood test for PSA test?

  • Have been complaining from difficult, painful, and/or frequent urination, back pain, and/or pelvic pain. see explanation for blood in urine of male.
  • A man after age 30 for families with cancer history, Checkup periodically for prostate tumors.
  • A man after age 50 for even with no symptoms exist, as PSA is used as an early tumor marker for prostate cancer.
  • Thickness consistency of seminal fluid.
  • Muscle builders who take a testosterone must check for their PSA level periodically.

What is prostate specific antigen test?
Male Prostate Gland exclusively produce a protein called prostate specific antigen, the shortcut is PSA, PSA is used for liquefying the semen following ejaculation. Large PSA amount go into semen and low amount go through the blood stream which can be detected by PSA blood test in nanograms per milliliter of blood. So that the Normal PSA level in healthy man and after the treatment completion is to be very low . Any steadily increase after treatment is considered recurrence.

What is Free PSA blood test?

The difference between total PSA test and Free PSA test is that: Benign prostate cells produce only free PSA form, tumor cells produce complexed PSA form (cPSA), the higher form predict the source of increase, see the individual interpretation below. So that the Free PSA test is a blood test measures the prostate specific antigen produced only by benign prostate cells.
Why do Free PSA blood test? 

  1. PSA Blood Tests is designed to measure Free PSA or Total PSA (both free and complexed), therefore, when total PSA is within grey levels we still need Free PSA test results to know which the values of PSA are driven from cancer or not?
  2. Minimize the need for biopsy in patients in grey zone or borderline results of PSA values.
  3. When total PSA is rising rapidly even the free PSA results is relatively low it still prognostic.
    For instance: in a male case PSA fluctuated from 5.7 to 7.8 and Free PSA from 0.98 to 1.41. after months PSA went up to 8.48 and after a year PSA went up to 9.59, the doctor suggests to perform a Biopsy. while Free PSA test can postpone the need to biopsy.

What does Free PSA test result mean?
The Higher the free PSA the lowest the Probability of prostate cancer.
How can PSA blood test tell I have prostate cancer or not?
You have the higher probability of prostate cancer if your PSA results are high in both free and total measurements or if the total PSA is the only high.
Can PSA blood test predict prostate cancer alone?
Evaluation of PSA blood test results depends on many diagnostic factors, basically there are many Prostate cancer indicators.PSA Blood test

  1. Family history of prostate cancers.
  2. Ethnicity.
  3. Urinary symptoms: Urine analysis test is for exclusion of prostatitis or other UTI. blood in urine test explained.
  4. Digital Rectal Exam findings (nodules vs. no nodules).
    DRE or digital rectal exam, “digital” means finger.
    Check for growths in or enlargement of the prostate gland in men.
    A tumor in the prostate can often be felt as a hard lump.
    DRE results: My DRE check up with Urologist specialist was normal or non-remarkable
  5. Age: The higher the man’s age the normal the PSA elevation for age, but not with excessive high levels.
  6. The correlation between free PSA percentage and Total PSA levels
  7. PSA Series testing results: to measure how fast PSA levels is doubling? if repeated PSA over a year is rapidly increase, it means confirmation of prostate cancer or a more aggressive form of cancer.
  8. Ultrasound determined volume of prostate correlated with high PSA level to confirm prostate cancer.
  9. 4KScore test is consists of four prostate-specific kallikreins measurements in the blood: Total PSA, Free PSA, Intact PSA, and Human Kallikrein 2 (hK2) and combined with age and DRE results, to detect up to 95% of aggressive Gleason score 7 or higher prostate cancer in men upon biopsy and help minimize over 50% of biopsies.

What is watchful waiting for PSA results?
Watchful waiting: series of PSAs be done over time to determine whether the level goes down, stays elevated, or continues to increase. to monitor its progress rather than pursue immediate treatment
Recommendations:

  • High PSA result for the first time should be repeated in a period between 6 weeks and 3 months, before deciding any medical decision, as high PSA in many cases return to normal after a time which was probably just infection.
  • Annual routine checkup by PSA blood test is recommended for men over 50 of age according to the average age set by cancer associations around the world.
  • Periodic Checkup for men over 30 is preferred for those have a family history of prostate cancer.
  • To determine which men actually have cancer and which don’t, physicians traditionally perform a biopsy. Undergoing a biopsy isn’t as traumatic as surgery, but it causes discomfort and can provoke anxiety. while Free PSA test can sway decision of performing painful biopsy.
  • Take a blood test for PSA at regular intervals after treatment from prostate cancer to detect recurrence of the cancer.
  • Follow up treatment by PSA blood test in one laboratory to avoid minimum change between laboratories, the cancer recurrence may cause such minimum change.

There is no sharp blood test can tell if the prostate cancer cause man’s death, also many prostate cancers may exist while PSA levels still not high. I recommend you to follow my next interpretation about PSA levels chart.

Wha tests should be done to detect the presence of tumor and cancer?

Many people became terrified of being infected with tumors or cancers which increases the concern for themselves and are interested in anything reassuring and comforting thinking who became sick illusions

Tumor Marker tests:
You know if you are infected tumor, whether malignant or benign, there are medical tests called tumor markers tests. Tumor Marker tests divided into groups, each group used to detect the type of cancer, according to its position in the human body, where the tumor maker called  “CEA” is a general test to detect the malignancy.

  1. breast functions used as breast tumor marker: CA15.3 ,  CEA ,  MCA
  2. liver functions used as liver and abdomen tumor marker: AFP ,  CEA (Liver)
  3. kidney functions used as renal tumor marker: Renin ,  B-HCG (Kidney)
  4. testicular tumors functions used as tumor marker: B-HCG ,  Erythropoitein (Testis)
  5. prostate functions used as Prostate tumor marker: PSA ,  Free PSA ,  Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) (Prostate)
  6. lung functions used as lungs tumor marker: CEA ,  CA 19.9 ,  NSE
  7. bladder functions used as bladder  tumor marker: CEA ,  CA50
Blood cancer and lymphoma tests:
Detection tests of lymphoma using Lymphoma test Panel but it differ according to the type of Lymphoma, so that it is recommended to “Please contact lab”

Histopathology examination tests:
It is Require biopsy or sample from a serious body fluid, it is rare tests but sometimes is very serious and required test, histopathological examination of body fluids and tissues are used for confirm the incidence of tumor by examining the tissue of the infected organ.

  1. tissue samples taken from the body and need to be tested to make sure there are no tumors (Biopsy)
  2. sample drawn from the body fluids need to be checked to make sure there are no tumors (Cytology)
  3. slices sent for examination of the cervix (PAP smear)
  4. slices posted has been previously checked by another doctor and saw the lab results sometimes required Consultation
  5. Posted segments is dyed or blocks of wax and dyes required for immune cell tumors (Immunohistochemistry)

Blood Chromosomes tests:
also used to pre-diagnosis of cancers and to detect the hereditary diseases.

  1. chromosomes tissue
  2. amino acids in blood
  3. amino acids in urine
  4. Philadelphia chromosome 

General recommendations:

  1. always do general checkup tests every 3, or 6 or 12 months to predict early the risks.
  2. do not eat unknown foods or drinks polutaed water.
  3.  Liver diseases especially HCV is a serious risk of liver malignancy.