Blood Sugar Levels

Glucagon Blood Test and Normal Glucagon Levels

Where Does Glucagon Come From?

Glucagon released from three organs in the body, the hypothalamus (in the brain); small concentration from intestines; and mainly from alpha cells in the pancreas.

Glucagon blood test diagram
A Diagram shows how does glucagon works

How Does Glucagon Work?

The main job of Glucagon is working to counterbalance the actions of insulin, as you may know, insulin works to lower the hyperglycemia (high sugar in the blood), therefore, Glucagon works to increase the blood glucose levels as needed by the body organs.

But, why Glucagon increases the blood glucose, isn’t unusual for the blood glucose level to be high?

Actually, Glucagon is a part of the balanced rhythm by the human body, in this process, some elements work to increase the vital levels until it becomes high normal, then other elements work to keep these normal levels inside the safe limits, the reality of these balance formulas isn’t dangerous to the body, but they made to keep the Normal body status.

Glucagon starts to compensate for low glucose 4 hours after you eat a meal, and can still be working for 4 days when starvation occurs, but no more than 8 days.

Glucagon works by turns on three biological processes:

  1. Stimulating the breakdown of stored glucose as glycogen inside the liver cells, the process is known as Glycogenolysis, it means breaking the glycogen bulk and converts it into usable glucose units for energy demand.
  2. Stimulating Adipose tissues to break down fats to produce ketones for energy demands, the process called (Lipolysis or ketogenesis), which means lipid metabolism into ketones. ketone levels must be maintained to the safe level or can be a signal of danger as well. see ketone levels chart
  3. Generation of new additional glucose units from “non-carbohydrate carbon substrates” such as lactate, glycerol, propionate and glucogenic amino acids, this process called “gluconeogenesis”, also when glycogen used up, the body starts to break down proteins of the muscles into amino acids and converts them to new glucose to compensate low energy. gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver and kidney and stimulated by the diabetogenic hormones (glucagon, growth hormone, epinephrine, and cortisol)

While Inhibits and stops these process:

  1. Before anything, Stops the glucose storing process through liver glycogen synthesis, thus keeping the glucose unstored to be used by the body.
  2. Inhibition of glycolysis, which means decreasing or stop the continuous breaking down of already made glucose

For these reasons the blood glucose must be maintained and need to be elevated to the Normal state by glucagon:

  1. Starvation; As glucose concentration be (50 mg %) as the insulin drops and glucagon increases too enhance the glucose levels in the blood. However, when glucose levels elevated up to (300 mg %), this will stimulate insulin to work while gradually stop glucagon secretions, which makes the blood glucose to back to normal levels (70 – 110 mg/dL)
  2. Fasting state; early after a meal the blood glucose become higher and insulin increases to make a use of that glucose, 2 hours after the meal glucose levels reaches the optimum level then consumed by the body organs for energy purposes, then glucose levels become lower with the time and insulin starts to decrease and glucagon stimulated again to compensate the demand of glucose in the blood. 4 days is the time of glucagon stimulation after fasting and starvation but shut down up to 8 days.
  3. Glucose lowering medicines; taking an overdose of insulin shots will accidentally decrease your blood glucose levels to unwanted low levels, then glucagon starts to compensate.

side effects as a medicine

Results mean

Does glucagon affect muscle?

Scientifically, the epinephrine is mediated in the gluconeogenesis process which affects the cardiac and smooth muscle tissues through what’s medically known as “beta-adrenergic response”, but don’t affect directly the muscles as there are no glucagon receptors on muscles.

Normal Levels for Children, Newborn, and Adults

What should the normal glucagon level be?

AgeNormal Range in pg/mL
<= 6 hours100 – 650
1 – 2 days 70 – 450
2 – 4 days 100 – 650
4 – 14 daysGradually goes down to adult levels
>14 days< or = 80

Any glucagon reading below normal ranges deserves the treatment with glucagon shots to keep the blood glucose and glucagon levels at its optimum.

Treatment with glucagon and side effects

Treatment by glucagon intramuscular takes 10 minutes to work to inhibits liver protein synthesis, but still, stands there for up to 6 hours to be stimulated by low blood glucose, once stimulated it stores the glucose pathophysiological range for diabetic patients.

Quick info. about random blood glucose test

Random Blood Sugar Test Chart

Random Blood Glucose Test Table contains the most important preliminary information about the test,

For more details about the blood glucose test please use the search box at the corner of the page.

NameRandom Blood Glucose
AbbreviationsRBG, RBS, R.Bl.Glucose
Other NamesRandom Blood Sugar, Random Blood Glucose
Fasting Not Required
Normal Range75 – 150 mg/dl, below 180 mg/dl,
SI; less than 10 mmol/L 
When to takeAnytime except when be fasting
Associated Diseases Diabetes
Waiting timewithin 15 minutes
Home Test KitsAvailable, Glucose home test kits
Related TestsFasting Blood Glucose,
2hrs After Meal Blood Glucose
ResourcesAmerican Diabetes Association (ADA)

Best A1C Chart and All HGB A1C Levels Charts

A1C chart is a better method to understand the meaning of A1c blood test results.
Because most diabetic people have to monitor their blood glucose levels periodically, and to ease their understanding of a1c reading,
all in one place, we present ready calculated a1c charts between the palm of your hands, you can read on mobiles or handle a printable chart as much as the size of your hand.
Don’t be confused, Hemoglobin A1c test is different from Hemoglobin test that’s is a part of complete blood count test.

HGB Levels Chart by Age and Diabetes

If we can say that the hemoglobin A1c represents the saturation percentage of red blood cells with sugar particles,
therefore the hgb A1c% results must be directly proportional to the diabetes severity.
Sorting all hemoglobin (Hgb) A1c levels for each diabetic condition based on DCCT formula (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial).

Normal A1c Levels Chart for Non-Diabetes

According to American Diabetes Association latest guidelines 2017 and 2018,
Hemoglobin A1c levels 3, 4, 5, and up to 5.7 is normal and tell that the person has no DM.
“Non-diabetes” means your blood glucose test results are within the expected normal limits for healthy persons.
The normal hemoglobin A1c means you’re not diabetic or you are on the goal levels, I mean that:
A1c 4.0% and A1c 5.0 means you weren’t diabetic and this value is the normal levels that all healthy persons must have.
But A1c 5.7% means you are on the last step before prediabetes stage.

Hemoglobin A1C Chart for prediabetes

From the ADA latest guidelines, The levels of hemoglobin A1c from 5.8 and less than 6.5 means the person is more likely to develop diabetes mellitus.

HGB A1C chart for Diabetes

Contains the levels of A1c that considered high for people suffering from DM patients whose treatment based on metformin or insulin.
Any reading of A1c is greater than 6.5 tells you have got DM according to ADA guidelines,
although for people who are already have DM and taking medications the levels from 7 to 8 is the target value they should shoot for.
However persons with type 1 DM and are on insulin especially children may show A1c levels over 10,
and they must fight to lower their Hgb a1c levels to theee goal targets.
Two consecutive tests show high A1c levels confirm the diagnosis of DM and means that the person has diabetes millitus type 2 or type 1.
For a person on metformin and A1c 7% it means he achieved the target value for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
However, for type 1 diabetes millitus and persons taking insulin to control DM the A1c 8.0 is mild as all his results may hit the A1c 12%.

Target Hb A1c Levels Chart

Non-Diabetes must have A1c test results less than 6, while Diabetes people should shoot for less than 6.5,
also less than 8 is a good DM control, but any A1c reading above the 8 levels represents uncontrolled DM.

A1c Ranges for Diabetes

A1c Ranges for Diabetes

Control A1c Levels for children and adolescents

A1C goal levels chart for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and average Serum glucose levels.
A1c goal to be less than 7.5% (58 mmol/mol).
Blood glucose before meals to be 90–130 mg/dL (5.0–7.2 mmol/L)
Glucose level at bedtime/overnight to be  90–150 mg/dL (5.0–8.3 mmol/L).
These goals should be modified to a lower goal (,7.0% [53 mmol/mol]) in  children with frequent hypoglycemia or hypoglycemia unawareness.
It’s helpful to individualize these goals under benefit-risk assessment to assess preprandial insulin doses in those on basal-bolus or pump regimens.

A1c Levels Chart for Pregnancy

A reasonable A1C goal for many nonpregnant adults is ,7% (53 mmol/mol).
For type 1,2 preexisting diabetes (preconception), it’s safe to reduce A1C below 6.5% (48 mmol/mol), to minimize the risk of congenital anomalies.
Management of Diabetes during Pregnancy, 
Accelerated red blood cell turnover is the reason behind decreased A1C in normal pregnant women than in normal nonpregnant women.
The A1C target level in pregnancy is 6–6.5% (42–48 mmol/mol).
Optimal A1c level during pregnancy:
It is 6% (42 mmol/mol) if this can be achieved without significant hypoglycemia, but the doctors may target A1c 7% (53 mmol/mol) to prevent hypoglycemia in pregnancy.
In the second and third trimesters:
To hit the lowest risk of large-for-gestational-age infants doctors must target A1C 6% (42 mmol/mol) ,
because studies shown that 6.5% (48mmol/mol) is related to increased adverse outcomes.
Blood sugar target levels during pregnancy:
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists as well as the ADA-recommended targets for women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes as follows:

  • Fasting #95 mg/dL (5.3 mmol/L) and either
  • One-hour postprandial #140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) or
  • Two-hour postprandial #120 mg/dL (6.7 mmol/L)

Read about: Pregnancy blood test results

Blood Hemoglobin A1C Conversion

After the international A1C-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study to show the correlation between A1c results and average blood glucose, we deliver a ready-to-download charts and tables.
Charts to tell how much blood sugar was during the last 3 months depending on how much is your hemoglobin A1c values in the diabetes blood test results.
Measuring units used here:

  • mg/dl is a short code for milligrams per deciliter and means how many milligrams of sugar is inside each 100 milliliter of your blood.
  • mmol/L is a short code for millimoles per liter and means how many millimoles of sugar is inside each liter of your blood.

Hemoglobin A1c Formula

To know how to calculate A1c and eAG simply use these mathematical equations which are used by the laboratory professionals to calculate the average blood glucose from A1c percentage and vise versa.

hgb a1c meters

hgb a1c meter

Conversion of A1c = (46.7 +Plasma Glucose) / 28.7
Conversion of Plasma Glucose = (28.7 * HbA1c) – 46.7
eAG in mg/dl = (35.6 × HbA1C)-77.3 or
eAG in mmol/l=(1.98×HbA1C)-4.29

The correlation of the equation results needs more details which will be added, continue reading please.
Here’s two ready made eAG values from A1c calculation in two measuring units of sugar monitors.

HGB A1C chart for conversion to average blood sugar in mg/dl

Ready calculated average blood sugar readings from the values of A1c to facilitate following-up your eAG level anytime.

A1C reading Estimated average blood sugar level in mg/dl
5 percent 97 mg/dL
6 percent 126 mg/dL
7 percent 154 mg/dL
8 percent 183 mg/dL
9 percent 212 mg/dL
10 percent 240 mg/dL
11 percent 269 mg/dL
12 percent 298 mg/dL
13 percent 326 mg/dL
14 percent 355 mg/dL

Hemoglobin A1C chart for conversion to average blood sugar in mmol/L

We calculate the average blood sugar values from all the A1c readings and give them to you ready-made inside this wallet sized A1c chart.

A1C reading Estimated average blood sugar by mmol/L
5 percent  5.4 mmol/L
6 percent  7 mmol/L
7 percent 8.5 mmol/L
8 percent 10.2 mmol/L
9 percent 11.8 mmol/L
10 percent 13.3 mmol/L
11 percent 14.9 mmol/L
12 percent  16.5 mmol/L
13 percent  18.1 mmol/L
14 percent 19.7 mmol/L

eAG/A1C Levels Conversion Calculator

Here’s a chart for Pre-calculated levels but remember that the small fraction isn’t really important because we measure the A1c over 3 months which is a long period, isn’t it?

A1c Vs eAG chart

A1c Vs eAG chart

A1C to eAG from American Diabetes Association latest guidelines

A1c eAG chart by ADA guidelines

the ADA Chart for conversion of A1c to eAG 

Discussing hemoglobin A1C levels from perspective of medical laboratory into usable A1c chart forms.
A1C test is a better marker of how well your diabetes treatment plan is working.

Subscribe and follow to get free explanations for your blood test results.

Urine Sugar Levels Chart, What Does Sugar in Urine Mean?

what does it mean to have glucose in your urine if you are child, man, or woman?
Should the one concerned about sugar in his/her urine?
Does maple colored urine indicate sugar in urine?
Please be patient and read carefully, comment with your question if you cannot find answer.
What does glucosuria means?
Medical term for sugar in the urine is Glycosuria or glucosuria, it is the excretion of excessive blood glucose into the urine filtrate.
Is it normal to have sugar in your urine
Ordinarily, urine contains no glucose because the kidneys are able to reclaim all of the filtered glucose back into the bloodstream. When you find a positive urine test for glucose, it means you have high level of sugar in your blood.
What does too much glucose in urine mean?
You can see glucose in your urine after the glucose in your blood exceeds 162 – 180 mg/dl which is the normal glucose threshold of the kidney.
excess glucose in urine is usually not a healthy concern, and of course there is nothing to call it the normal glucose levels in urinalysis.
sugar in the urine in diabetes mellitus type 2: the kidney cannot deal with great amount of sugar which increased above the normal threshold of glucose, and excrete it in the urinary fluid.
In case of type 1 diabetes mellitus, the sugar drop in the urine as well as ketone bodies or “Acetone” in urine, the reasons behind acetone in urine is the consumption of fatty acids in the body to produce energy when the glucose is not available, remember that glucose in case of DM voided regularly through the urination while the body organs need the sugar for energy. Blood Sugar levels chart.
sugar in urine chart strips
1+ glucose in urine test, is it normal?
Even trace sugar in the urine is not clinically normal, 1+ means that the serum glucose is above 180 mg/dl and the urine contains 250 mg/dL or 11.1 mmol/l, while trace glucose in urine strip means 100 mg/dL or 5.55 mmol/l of sugar is expelled in the urine fluid.
2+ sugar in urine, what is the meaning?
In urine stix chart 2+ Glucose means that the urine contains over 500 mg/dL or 27.75 of body sugar needed for energy purposes.
2+ glucose level in urine means that the blood glucose test result is over 200 mg/dl.
What does 3+ glucose in urine mean
in most urine strips the 3+ glucose correlates with 1000 mg/dL or 55.5 mmol/l of sugar in the urine.
When Glucose in blood test is over the 300 mg/dl, it likely to see 3+ glucose in urine test.
3+ in urine means that there is greater than 1000 mg/dl blood sugar lost through urine.
Urine sugar level 4+, what does it mean?
The blood glucose test usually above the 400 mg/dl when you see 4+ in your urinalysis.
And the strip chart tells that 4+ means 2000 mg/dL or 111 mmol/l of sugar.
That means, when your blood has about 400 mg/dl of glucose, the urine is enriched with over 2000 mg/dl of glucose, which is a big loss of glucose the source of body energy.
What does sugar in urine mean in a child
Some people, especially children and pregnant women, may have a low RTG (less than ~7 mmol/L glucose in blood to have glucosuria), kid’s have glucose positive in urine strips must follow up by additional glucose test to confirm that they have type 1 diabetes.
What does sugar in urine mean during pregnancy
Pregnant may show high sugar in urine without sugar elevation in the blood, i.e. the blood glucose test is usually normal for pregnant.
Pregnancy is the most common causes of non-diabetic sugar in urine.
Renal Threshold of Glucose for pregnant woman is less than “7.0 mmol/l” of blood glucose in order to have glucosuria. Follow up during pregnancy and after birth is important to determine if it was gestational diabetes or type 1,2.
Should I concern if I have glucose level high in urine?
Glycosuria leads to excessive water loss into the urine with resultant dehydration, a process called osmotic diuresis. Also leakage of sugar in urine means that the sugar in blood will be reduced, cells suffer from gradual damage and paralysis and muscles get weak too because they do not find the energy source, the kidneys get injuries when high sugar pass through them, which cause kidney inflammation and may be failure, protein and sugar in urine together is a good indicator of renal failure due to high sugar levels. However early diagnosis and treatment of hyperglycemia prevent and reduce such complications.
Kidney function tests with diabetes and without
Blood and sugar in urine, is it significant?
The is no relationship between finding of sugar and blood in urine together, blood and glucose in urine test can be due to many separate reasons, see my previous blood in urine list of reasons.
What should I do when I have glucose in urine?
When a urine analysis show glucose excess or even traces, it means you’re diabetic or non-diabetic as well, actually you need to take a blood test for sugar to confirm that the urine test tells the truth.
Glucose in urine can be identified by Benedict’s qualitative test.
Blood Tests Need to confirm Positive urine sugar are:
Fasting blood glucose and test two hours post prandial sugar test (means test after two hours of a meal).
Glycated hemoglobin or cellular sugar test (HbA1C test): which show the average sugar level over the past 3 months.
Glucose tolerance test: for diabetic patients on insulin.
More tests: full list
Symptoms of high sugar levels?
• Increased thirst.
• Frequent urination.
• Fatigue.
• Nausea and vomiting.
• Shortness of breath.
• Stomach pain.
• Fruity breath odor.
• A very dry mouth.
However the symptoms of excessive urination without high blood glucose levels causes dehydration and tremendous thirst too.
What causes high sugar in urine test?
Glycosuria is nearly always caused by elevated blood glucose levels,
1. Untreated diabetes mellitus: most common causes of urine sugar.
2. Rarely, glycosuria is due to an intrinsic problem with glucose reabsorption within the kidneys themselves, a condition medical term is renal glycosuria.
3. Glycosuria can be induced therapeutically for treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 using SGLT2 inhibitors which collectively known as gliflozins.
Does Sugar in My Urine Mean I Have Diabetes?
Concentrated urine fluid after wake up or due to dehydration may show up a trace urinary glucose in the strip, a physiological causes and not of clinical importance.
The long standing urine allow bacterial growth and thus sugar positive urine, which is not relevant, it’s recommended to test fresh urine only.
Before mention about causes of sugar in urine other than diabetes, have you heard about Renal Threshold?
Renal function is the responsible for keeping blood sugar back to the circulation, specific renal tubule can only reabsorb a limited amount of glucose. When the blood glucose level exceeds about 162 – 180 mg/dl, the proximal tubule becomes overwhelmed and begins to excrete glucose in the urine.
This phenomenon is called the renal threshold of glucose (medical abbreviation is RTG). If the RTG is so low that even normal blood glucose levels produce the condition, it is medically referred to as renal glycosuria.
The renal threshold of glucose (RTG) is the blood glucose concentration at which glucose begins to be excreted by the kidneys into the urine. This usually occurs in healthy adults at approximately 9 – 10 mmol/L (162 – 180 mg/dL). In many adults, particularly those with long-standing diabetes, the RTG may increase substantially. therefore, you may have elevated blood glucose levels without glucose being shown in the urine because your blood glucose still under the normal limit of excretion.
Conversely, if you’re a teenager or a pregnant female, you may have very low urinary sugar or variable renal thresholds for glucose, and when take a urine test, glucose being present in the urine, even blood test shows normal blood glucose values.
The lowest renal glucose threshold= 7 mmol/L (126 mg/dL)
Normal renal threshold of glucose= 9 mmol/L (162 md/dL)
The recorded High renal threshold of gluocse= 11 mmol/L (198 mg/dL)
Why should a glucose test be performed on a fresh urine specimen
Bacterial growth in the old urine specimens make false positive sugar in urine.
It is important that the urine sample is fresh when tested so try to take it to the laboratory within two hours or put it in the fridge (not the freezer) until you can deliver. This makes the testing 100% accurate.

Urine dipstick test result mg/dl mmol/l
Glucose in urine: trace 100آ mg/dL 5.55
Glucose 1+ 250آ mg/dL 11.1
Glucose 2+ 500آ mg/dL 27.75
Glucose 3+ 1000آ mg/dL 55.5
Glucose 4+ 2000آ mg/dL 111

What’s your glucose level?