Uncategorized

When Your Blood Sugar Is Too High or Too Low


Sometimes, no matter how hard you try to keep your blood sugar in the range your doctor has advised, it can be too high or too low. Blood sugar that is too high or too low can make you very sick. Here’s how to handle these emergencies.

What You Need to Know about High Blood Sugar

If your blood sugar stays over 240, it is too high. High blood sugar usually comes on slowly. It happens when you don’t have enough insulin in your body. High blood sugar can happen if you miss taking your diabetes medicine, eat too much, or don’t get enough exercise. Sometimes, medicines you take for other problems may cause high blood sugar. Be sure to tell your doctor about other medicines you take.

This chart shows the ranges of blood sugar.

Having an infection or being sick or under stress can also make your blood sugar too high. That is why it is very important to test your blood and keep taking your medicine (insulin or diabetes pills) when you have an infection or are sick.

Your blood sugar may be too high if you are very thirsty and tired, have blurry vision, are losing weight fast, and have to go to the bathroom often. Very high blood sugar may make you feel sick to your stomach, faint, or throw up. It can cause you to lose too much fluid from your body.

Testing your blood sugar often, especially when you are sick, will warn you that your blood sugar may be rising too high. If your blood sugar stays over 300 when you check it two times in a row, call your doctor. You may need a change in your insulin shots or diabetes pills, or a change in your meal plan.

If you are not sick and do not have ketones in your urine, going for a slow walk or some other easy exercise may lower your blood sugar.

What You Need to Know about Low Blood Sugar

If your blood sugar drops too low, you can have a low blood sugar reaction, called hypoglycemia. A low blood sugar reaction can come on fast. It is caused by taking too much insulin, missing a meal, delaying a meal, exercising too much, or drinking too much alcohol. Sometimes, medicines you take for other health problems can cause blood sugar to drop.



Continued

A low blood sugar reaction can make you feel shaky, mixed up, unhappy, hungry, or tired. You may sweat a lot or get a headache. Your legs may shake. If your blood sugar drops lower, you can get very confused, sleepy, or irritable, or you may pass out or have a seizure.

Treat low blood sugar quickly. If you have signs of low blood sugar, eat or drink something that has sugar in it. Some things you can eat are hard candy, sugar-sweetened soda, orange juice, or a glass of milk. Special tablets or gel made of glucose (a form of sugar) can be used to treat low blood sugar. You can buy these in a drug store. Always have some of these items handy at home or with you when you go out in case your blood sugar drops too low. After treating a low blood sugar reaction, eat a small snack like half a sandwich, a glass of milk, or some crackers if your next meal is more than 30 minutes away.

In case of a medical emergency, be sure that you carry medical identification (a tag or card) that says you have diabetes and lists the medicines you take. It should also give the name and telephone number of your doctor. Tell your family, friends, teachers, or other people you see often about the signs of low blood sugar. Explain how to treat it. You may need their help some day.

You can prevent most low blood sugar reactions by eating your meals on time, taking your diabetes medicine, and testing your blood sugar often. Testing your blood will show if your sugar level is going down. You can then take steps, like eating some fruit, crackers, or other snack, to raise your blood sugar level.

Action Steps…


If You Use Insulin

  • Tell your doctor if you have low blood sugar reactions often, especially if they happen at the same time of day or night.
  • Tell your doctor if you have passed out from low blood sugar or if you ever needed someone’s help.
  • Ask your doctor about “glucagon.” Glucagon is a medicine to raise blood sugar. If you pass out from low blood sugar, someone should call “911” emergency and give you a glucagon shot.


Continued


If You Don’t Use Insulin

  • Be sure to tell your doctor about other medicines you may be taking.
  • If you take diabetes pills you can also have low blood sugar reactions. The doctor may need to make a change in your medicine or eating plan. (If you don’t take pills or insulin, you don’t have to worry about low blood sugar reactions.)

Always be prepared for a low blood sugar reaction. Keep a snack handy. Ask your doctor or diabetes educator for a list of snacks to treat low blood sugar.

Information for Your Doctor about This Document

Blood glucose values and other management guidelines cited in this document are based on recommendations from:

  • American Association of Diabetes Educators
  • American Diabetes Association
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Diabetes Translation
  • Diabetes program at the Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Recommendations for improving blood glucose control are based on the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), a 10-year clinical study of insulin-dependent diabetes sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH. The DCCT showed that volunteers who intensively managed their diabetes reduced their risk of eye disease by 76 percent, kidney disease by 50 percent, and nerve disease by 60 percent.




Source

Blood Glucose Test: Preparation, Procedure, and More

A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose in your blood. Glucose, a type of simple sugar, is your body’s main source of energy. Your body converts the carbohydrates you eat into glucose.

Glucose testing is primarily done for people with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Diabetes is a condition that causes your blood glucose levels to rise.

The amount of sugar in your blood is usually controlled by a hormone called insulin. However, if you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or the insulin produced doesn’t work properly. This causes sugar to build up in your blood. Increased levels of blood sugar can lead to severe organ damage if left untreated.

In some cases, blood glucose testing may also be used to test for hypoglycemia. This condition occurs when the levels of glucose in your blood are too low.

Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and teenagers whose bodies aren’t able to produce enough insulin. It’s a chronic or long-term condition that requires continuous treatment. Late-onset type 1 diabetes has been shown to affect people between the ages of 30 and 40.

Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed in overweight and obese adults, but it can develop in younger people as well. This condition occurs when your body doesn’t make enough insulin or when the insulin you produce doesn’t work properly. The impact of type 2 diabetes may be reduced through weight loss and healthy eating.

Gestational diabetes occurs if you develop diabetes while you’re pregnant. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after you give birth.

After receiving a diagnosis of diabetes, you may have to get blood glucose tests to determine if your condition is being managed well. A high glucose level in a person with diabetes may mean that your diabetes isn’t being managed correctly.

Other possible causes of high blood glucose levels include:

  • hyperthyroidism, or overactive thyroid
  • pancreatitis, or inflammation of your pancreas
  • pancreatic cancer
  • prediabetes, which happens when you’re at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes
  • stress to the body from illness, trauma, or surgery
  • medications such as steroids

In rare cases, high blood glucose levels could be a sign of a hormonal disorder called acromegaly, or Cushing syndrome, which occurs when your body produces too much cortisol.

It’s also possible to have levels of blood glucose that are too low. However, this isn’t as common. Low blood glucose levels, or hypoglycemia, may be caused by:

  • insulin overuse
  • starvation
  • hypopituitarism, or underactive pituitary gland
  • hypothyroidism, or underactive thyroid
  • Addison’s disease, which is characterized by low levels of cortisol
  • alcohol abuse
  • liver disease
  • insulinoma, which is a type of pancreatic tumor
  • Kidney disease

Blood glucose tests are either random or fasting tests.

For a fasting blood glucose test, you can’t eat or drink anything but water for eight hours before your test. You may want to schedule a fasting glucose test first thing in the morning so you don’t have to fast during the day. You may eat and drink before a random glucose test.

Fasting tests are more common because they provide more accurate results and are easier to interpret.

Before your test, tell your doctor about the medications you’re taking, including prescriptions, over-the-counter drugs, and herbal supplements. Certain medications can affect blood glucose levels. Your doctor may ask you to stop taking a particular medication or to change the dosage before your test temporarily.

Medications that can affect your blood glucose levels include:

  • corticosteroids
  • diuretics
  • birth control pills
  • hormone therapy
  • aspirin (Bufferin)
  • antipsychotics
  • lithium
  • epinephrine (Adrenalin)
  • tricyclic antidepressants
  • monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
  • ·phenytoin
  • sulfonylurea medications

Severe stress can also cause a temporary increase in your blood glucose and is usually due to one or more of these factors:

  • surgery
  • trauma
  • stroke
  • heart attack

You should tell your doctor if you’ve recently had any of these.

A blood sample can most likely be collected with a very simple prick to a finger. If you need other tests, your doctor may require a blood draw from a vein.

Before drawing blood, the healthcare provider performing the draw cleans the area with an antiseptic to kill any germs. They next tie an elastic band around your upper arm, causing your veins to swell with blood. Once a vein is found, they insert a sterile needle into it. Your blood is then drawn into a tube attached to the needle.

You may feel slight to moderate pain when the needle goes in, but you can reduce the pain by relaxing your arm.

When they’re finished drawing blood, the healthcare provider removes the needle and places a bandage over the puncture site. Pressure will be applied to the puncture site for a few minutes to prevent bruising.

The sample of blood is then sent to a lab for testing. Your doctor will follow up with you to discuss the results.

There’s a very low chance that you’ll experience a problem during or after a blood test. The possible risks are the same as those associated with all blood tests. These risks include:

  • multiple puncture wounds if it’s difficult to find a vein
  • excessive bleeding
  • lightheadedness or fainting
  • hematoma, or blood collecting under your skin
  • infection

Normal results

The implications of your results will depend on the type of blood glucose test used. For a fasting test, a normal blood glucose level is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). For a random blood glucose test, a normal level is usually under 125 mg/dL. However, the exact level will depend on when you last ate.

Abnormal results

If you had a fasting blood glucose test, the following results are abnormal and indicate you may have either prediabetes or diabetes:

  • A blood glucose level of 100–125 mg/dL indicates that you have prediabetes.
  • A blood glucose level of 126 mg/dL and higher indicates that you have diabetes.

If you had a random blood glucose test, the following results are abnormal and indicate you may have either prediabetes or diabetes:

  • A blood glucose level of 140–199 mg/dL indicates that you may have prediabetes.
  • A blood glucose level of 200 mg/dL and higher indicates that you likely have diabetes.

If your random blood glucose test results are abnormal, your doctor will probably order a fasting blood glucose test to confirm the diagnosis or another test such as an Hgba1c.

If you’re diagnosed with prediabetes or diabetes, you can find more information and additional resources at http://healthline.com/health/diabetes.

Source

Is 3.7 too low for blood glucose?

Most people have hypoglycemic feelings when under 3.9 mmol/L ( 70 mg/dl ). A diabetic must be concerned about low glucose levels because a diabetic often injects insulin or takes medication to lower their blood glucose and as the cannot reduce a dose after it has been injected or swallowed, lowering glucose levels can be very dangerous hence the jelly bean advice from your friend cause a diabetic must correct the situation manually. A non-diabetic who wouldn’t be on insulin or medications for diabetes has little to fear from such symptoms but a quick snack should resolve the symptoms promptly.

Normally, a glucose test would be done fasting and done two hours after a meal ( postprandial ). The postprandial is considered normal if it’s under 7.8 mmol/L ( 140 mg/dl ) and diabetic when it’s 11.1 mmol/L ( 200 mg/dl ) or higher. As it’s doubtful that you took a reading at a useful time, you should see your Doctor and get a HbA1c test done.

As your measurement of 3.7 mmol/L was 30 minutes after your meal, you must’ve had a very high glycemic meal. The insulin your body produces lasts longer than very sugary food. You should divide your meals down into smaller, more frequent meals, select lower glycemic index alternatives and even replace or omit some cards. However 8.9 mmol/L is a little high, you may be prediabetic.

Source