patient case study

What tests should be done for the blood clots and Thrombotic Risks?

What tests should be done for the discovery of blood clots and Thrombotic Risk Profile tests?

  1.  The number of platelets Platelet Count
  2.  Prothrombin time and concentration “PT”
  3.   Partial Thromboplastin time “PTT”
  4.  Clotting factor V using the PCR
  5. Factor V by PCR
  6. Anti Thrombin III
  7.  Protein C
  8. Protein S
  9.  The level of FDPs
  10.  The level of fibrinogen
  11. Lupus Anticoagulant
  12. Anti Cardiolipin Ab. (IgG & IgM)

What does false positive and false negative means?

Sometimes analysis pregnancy test tape at home may you find an imaginary line illusion as positive with the appointment menstrual cycle has come and sometimes some tests give positive results in the original there is no positive real if re-analysis under different conditions, and likewise in the results negative, which may turn into positive under different conditions or after a period of time.

So that, What are false-positive and false-negative test results?
A false-positive test result is one that shows a disease or condition is present when it is not present. A false-positive test result may suggest that a person has the disease or condition when he or she does not have it. For example, a false-positive pregnancy test result would appear to detect the substance that confirms pregnancy, when in reality the woman is not pregnant.

A false-negative test result is one that does not detect what is being tested for even though it is present. A false-negative test result may suggest that a person does not have a disease or condition being tested for when he or she does have it. For example, a false-negative pregnancy test result would be one that does not detect the substance that confirms pregnancy, when the woman really is pregnant.

Some lab tests can give you specific information. For example, your doctor may suspect you have strep throat and order a throat culture to see if streptococcus bacteria are present. A positive lab test confirms that you have strep throat and helps your doctor choose the right treatment for you.
But some tests give only a clue that must be considered with other information to support a diagnosis, identify a risk, or help choose a treatment. For example, if your cholesterol test results show you have high LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, your doctor will weigh your other risk factors for heart disease before deciding on treatment.
The source is from what explained in WEBMED website.

What does reference range mean?

What does reference range mean?

In the medical laboratory technicians and specialists used the term normal level or normal range in the blood to express standard values ​​that are found in healthy people.

Imbalance in the normal level of the standard value of any material under analysis: comes from a defect in the human body and the presence of the results of the analysis of the patient outside its normal level is an imbalance caused by disease or disorder of any kind in the body.
From Wikipedia: In health-related fields, a reference range or reference interval usually describes the variations of a measurement or value in healthy individuals. It is a basis for a physician or other health professional to interpret a set of results for a particular patient.

What does reference range mean?

How normal level or reference ranges is set to measure natural substances in the human body?

Taking a sample from a large group of healthy people in the reconstruction of convergent can find the natural value of the material analyzed.
Other sampling of people in different age groups and different health can be set allowable range and set the levels of disease and treatment and other levels.

From webmed: Each reference range is different because it is created from information from a specific group. For example, the following table shows reference ranges for a sedimentation rate test. This test helps determine whether inflammation, infection, or an autoimmune disease may be present.

understand what should my results be if normal

What is the healthy normal range and values for my lab test results?

The frequent question is, is my blood test results is normal or not?
let me explain what does it meant by Normal Range for a substance in our blood.

The List of all normal values and healthy normal ranges for some common medical analysis tests:

  • E.S.R) Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate)

Normal values of ESR test are:
Male 0 – 13 mm per hour
Female 0 – 20 mm per hour

This analysis is worth more than in cases of pregnancy and the menstrual cycle ..
And infections such as tuberculosis and immune diseases
it is less than its value in cases of sickle cell anemia.
This analysis is always requested by doctors and can be dispensed with if he the Doctor can make diagnosis without. read more abut high sed rate levels

  • BT (Bleeding Time) APTT and PT

All these previous analyzes measure blood clotting time..
I mean useful to know the blood thinners ..
But if more time is greater than the natural border.. The Possible hemorrhage incidence..
Normal ranges are:

BT & CT UP TO 10 min
PT = 10-14 sec
APTT = 30-40 sec

Bleeding Time Normal ranges are:
Bleeding for 1 – 5 min
Coagulation Time or clotting time: 5 – 10 min
Prothrombin Time for clotting: 80 – 100%

  • Creatinine

Rises in the event of a defect in the work of kidneys
creatinine Normal ranges is: 0.5-1.2 mg/dl

  • Uric Acid

Of course known rise in cases of gout.
normal values is between 3.5 – 7.0 mg/dl

High Uric acid meaning

  • Blood urea

Produced by breaking a protein found in the body
Rises in the case of sugar, fever, coma and after the operations
normal values are ranges 15 – 45 mg/dl in a healthy person.

What does BUN blood test results mean?

  • Complete blood picture has normal values as:

Red blood cells (RBCs)
Normal range is 4.2 – 5.9 million cells / cumm
Hemoglobin Hgb%:
In men the natural rate ranges between 13 – 18. In women between 12 – 16.
White blood cells (WBCs)
Normal rate ranges between 4,300 – 10,800 cells / cumm
There are 5 different types of white blood cells, each with a different function:
Neutrophils: normal range 40 – 75%.
Lymphocytes: normal range 20 – 45%.
Monocytes: normal range 2-10%.
Eosinophils: normal range 1-6%.
Basophils: normal 1%.
The normal number of platelets is 150,000 – 400,000 / cumm

Optimal (health) range or therapeutic target 

understand what should my results be if normal

(not to be confused with biological target) is a reference range or limit that is based on concentrations or levels that are associated with optimal health or minimal risk of related complications and diseases, rather than the standard range based on normal distribution in the population.

It may be more appropriate to use for e.g. folate, since approximately 90 percent of North Americans may actually suffer more or less from folate deficiency, but only the 2.5 percent that have the lowest levels will fall below the standard reference range. In this case, the actual folate ranges for optimal health are substantially higher than the standard reference ranges.

Vitamin D has a similar tendency. In contrast, for e.g. uric acid, having a level not exceeding the standard reference range still does not exclude the risk of getting gout or kidney stones. Furthermore, for most toxins, the standard reference range is generally lower than the level of toxic effect.

A problem with optimal health range is a lack of a standard method of estimating the ranges. The limits may be defined as those where the health risks exceed a certain threshold, but with various risk profiles between different measurements (such as folate and vitamin D), and even different risk aspects for one and the same measurement (such as both deficiency and toxicity of vitamin A) it is difficult to standardize. Subsequently, optimal health ranges, when given by various sources, have an additional variability caused by various definitions of the parameter.

Also, as with standard reference ranges, there should be specific ranges for different determinants that affects the values, such as sex, age, long clinical experience by a physician may make this method more preferable than using reference ranges.

The sources include from Wikipedia, webmed, myocliniclabs
more will come… for more information please see:
what is reference range? 
what is meant by false positive or false negative result?
How to measure blood contents in lab tests?