Anemia

What Does MCH Blood Test Mean in CBC test?

What Is MCH In Blood test?
MCH test can be defined as one of the comprehensive blood test (CBC), known as the complete blood count test.
MCH value is calculated from the hemoglobin reading and red blood cells count by a mathematical equation.
It is known as the average hemoglobin mass and used for diagnosing the causes of many diseases.
Red blood cells are one of the main blood components that take the shape of ball, as it contains hemoglobin, which is linked to the iron element and a number of different proteins.
MCH test:
The average mass of the hemoglobin molecule is analyzed by taking a sample of red blood cells
The hemoglobin mass in the red blood cells ranges between 26-33 pkg within the normal range.
In the case of high or low, there is a disturbance in the amount of iron in the blood, which is associated with many diseases, as in the case of red blood cell mass disorder, because of the association of reading hemoglobin.
Anemia is a condition where the result of MCH test is less than normal:
Due to the lack of iron needed to produce hemoglobin, and therefore the mass of hemoglobin molecule in blood is less than the rate sufficient to contain oxygen, showing the patient several symptoms is a preliminary indication of the magnitude of the test of the average hemoglobin red cells.
These symptoms include:
Physical and general impairment of motor activity.
Feeling dizziness and blurry vision, especially in cases of changing the position of the body from sitting directly.
Weakness of the ability of the body to exercise.
The appearance of paleness and signs of depression in the face.

MCH test can detect early Sickle cell anemia:
MCH test is one of the most important tests to detect the disease, which affects the red blood cells to take the shape of sickle, which is the origin of the label.
Where the disease is spread clearly in the Mediterranean region,
The disease is caused by the production of bone marrow for abnormal cells due to a number of factors and influences, the most important genetic factor.
Where the problem lies in a defect in one of the nucleic acids (RNA),
Therefore, MCH test should be performed when symptoms associated with the disease are present:
Feeling dizzy when doing a sudden muscle strain.
Acute bronchitis attacks.
Occurrence of visual disorders.
The occurrence of kidney failure leads in many cases to the formation of gravel.
Fracture and joint stiffness.
The occurrence of vascular disorders may lead to an increase in blood pressure or the occurrence of strokes of the heart or brain.

What Does Creatinine 5 and Hemoglobin 7 means?

From received questions: I am a 50 years’ woman complaining from backpain and weakness all the time, and have got these lab work results:

  • Creatinine 5 mg/dl
  • BUN 140
  • eGFR 9.0 mL/min/1.73m2
  • Haemoglobin 7.5
  • Total white cells count 15,000 /ml
  • Neutrophils cells count 12,500  /ml
  • Serum Iron 35

Please explain my results.

Interpretation

Creatinine is the main waste product used to measure the efficiency of the kidneys, elevated when kidney have a damage or blockage. Haemoglobin is a molecule inside red blood cells which attach oxygen and transport it to tissues.
Backpain is not usually a sign of renal impairment unless creatinine is elevated, however kidney diseases are common at such age, here’s simple interpretation of your blood test results.
Creatinine normal range is 0.4 – 1.4 mg/dl and therefore Serum creatinine of 5.0 is a high level which mark a severe kidney disease, may be acute or chronic.
Blood urea nitrogen normal level is 23 while the results show BUN 140 which is elevated and confirm the kidney disease along with the creatinine results.
Haemoglobin 7.5 out of 13 – 17 g/dl means anemia, the anemic person experience shortness of breath and pallor appearance as well as the weakness due to poor oxygenation of the body tissues.
Complete blood count show increased white blood cells count of the type neutrophils, neutrophils are those white cells responsible for removing the bacteria and dead tissue from the blood circulation.
Conclusion:
question cr 5 egfr 9
The medical report suggests progressive chronic disease as the eGFR is below 15, to confirm this diagnosis you must wait 3 months on such high levels along with ACR more than 30. Read more about GFR test.
What causes chronic kidney impairment is any disease that cause damage to blood vessels and tissues such as:

  • High blood sugar levels caused by diabetes which is the most common.
  • Uncontrolled high blood pressure (hypertension).
  • polycystic kidney disease.
  • Pyelonephritis.
  • Glomerulonephritis.
  • Long term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as celecoxib and ibuprofen, and certain antibiotics.

What to do with creatinine 5?

To slow the progression of chronic kidney disease, keep your blood levels at optimum:

  • Target blood pressure: below 130/80
  • Target blood sugar: 110 mg/dl or lower.
  • Target blood fats: triglycerides less than 150 mg/dl and LDL less than 60
  • Quit Smoking and alcohol as smoking can lead to atherosclerosis, which reduces blood flow to the kidneys and increases blood pressure.
  • Avoid dehydration which can be results from diarrhea and vomiting.

Treating CKD require integrated course to treat underlying causes as well, see more about creatinine blood test.

All Types of Anemia with Full Anemia Definition Chart and Diagnosis

Types of Anemia with Full Anemia Definition is an approach to indicate the type of anemia using your laboratory results.
What you will find I this article:

  1. How can medicine classify each type of anemia?
  2. Can lab results predict the type of anemia?
  3. How can doctors deal with anemia when following blood test results?
  4. Define different types of anemia.

Different Anemia Types Definitions

Common Anemia definition is a medical condition characterized by a decrease in RBCs, hemoglobin, and hematocrit below the normal range for healthy people of the same age, sex, and race, and under similar environmental conditions.
Early Anemia signs include high ferritin level and normal iron level in the blood results as well as general weakness and fatigue.
Iron Deficiency Anemia definition is the commonest type of anemia worldwide, it’s a condition in which human blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells because of inadequate iron levels to produce the cell’s hemoglobin.

  • Mild iron deficiency is unnoticed in CBC test results, however you may find low iron and normal hemoglobin,
  • but moderate iron deficiency anemia shows markedly decreased iron, iron stores (low ferritin), and hemoglobin, however iron deficiency anemia show general weakness and fatigue as well as pallor appearance.
  • Medical short form is IDA.
  • Best cure for iron deficiency anemia is dietary changes and Iron supplements, severe iron deficiency is curable after blood transfusion to raise hemoglobin levels firstly.

What is sickle cell anemia? define sickle cell anemia
Sickle Cell Anemia definition is a severe hereditary anemia that is common between African people, describe a group of inherited abnormal hemoglobin disorders.

  • Characterized by a crescent shaped red blood cells which have low ability to move and therfore block vessels, inability to carry enough oxygen and low life span in compared to those normal ones.
  • Medical short form of: SCA
  • What is the type of mutation that causes sickle cell anemia?
    What causes SCA anemia?
    Sickle cell anemia mutation is a change in one nucleotide in the gene for hemoglobin. Therefore, the hemoglobin in red blood cells distort to a sickle shape when deoxygenated.

Symptoms of sickle cell anemia:

  • Sickle cell crises is a medical term for Episodes of Pain due to SCA anaemia complications when blood vessels to any part of the body become blocked as a result of precipitation of illness RBCs.
  • Sickle cell pain may become severe and lasts for up to about 7 days.
  • Part of the body affected by sickle cell pain and crises, such as the: hands or feet (particularly in young children), legs and arms, pelvis, spine, ribs and breastbone.

What cure is for sickle cell anemia?

  1. A doctor visit every year is good recommendation for adult and kids over 2 years old.
  2. Reduce complications by rapid initiation of opioids for the treatment of vasoocclusive crisis.
  3. Also analgesics and physical therapy is for the treatment of avascular necrosis.
  4. Blood transfusion therapy to increase hemoglobin levels to 10 g/dL.
  5. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the best cure for sickle cell Anemia.

Thalassemia defintion
It is an inherited blood disease in which the RBCs hemoglobin is abnormal
Inherited means passed from parents to children through genes.
Types of thalassemia and causes:
Alpha thalassemia occurs when alpha globin protein genes are missing or changed or mutated.
Beta thalassemia occurs when the beta globin protein production is affected by similar gene defects.
Best Treatment:

  • Moderate or severe thalassemia treatment is blood transfusions.
  • Iron Chelation Therapy.
  • Folic Acid Supplements.
  • Transplantation of Blood and Marrow Stem Cell.

Define aplastic anemia
Aplastic anemia is a medical condition that occurs when the human body stops producing new blood cells. Aplastic anemia therefore causing Pancytopenia which is a deficiency of all three blood cell types: red blood cells count (its medical term is anemia), white blood cells count (its medical term is leukopenia), and platelets count (its medical term is thrombocytopenia).
Onset of Aplastic anemia: may be brief or become chronic, may come on suddenly or progress slowly over months.
Aplastic anemia can be deadly when it is severe and last for long time or due to receiving a treatment with a bone marrow transplant from an unrelated donor
Causes of Aplastic Anemia: there’re three main causes of this types of anemic forms;

  1. Autoimmune illness at which the body’s cells begin to attack themselves without an obvious reason, therefore Aplastic Anemia is a secondary disease.
  2. After some treatment: prolonged and wrong usage of antibiotics can cause Aplastic Anemia, also treatment programs for rheumatoid arthritis is another reason.
  3. Viral infections therefore can initiate Anaemic forms.

Treatment of Aplastic Anaemia:
Aplastic Anemia can be curable by:

  • Blood transfusion
  • Immune system suppressant which can’t cure Aplastic Anemia but can be beneficial to reduce complications.
  • Receive a bone marrow transplant from a sibling survive.

What is Hemolytic Anemia?
Hemolytic anemia definition is a medical condition in which RBCs is destroyed and/or removed from circulation before completing its normal life span, yellowish face appearance is a strong marker of severe hemolytic anemia due to elevated bilirubin levels in the blood.
What causes hemolytic anemia?
What is hemolysis and why does it occur?

  1. When red blood cells rupture or destroyed forcedly due to accidents or trauma to vessels.
  2. Infections by streptococcus species.
  3. Some pain relieving treatments lead to hemolysis of blood cells as well as chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  4. Inherited hemolytic anemia.
  5. Babies born with hemolytic anemia due to rapid destruction of their blood cells.

The cure of hemolytic anemia depends on the causative agent.
Pernicious anemia definition is a reduction in red blood cells count due to poor absorption of vitamin B12 by intestines
Causes: lack of the protein intrinsic factor (IF) which medicates Vitamin B12 absorption, however celiac disease and intestine ulcers may lead to IF deficiency.
Best treatment for pernicious anemia:
The medical term “pernicious” means “deadly”, this is because of difficulty of vitamin B12 therapy before, but now it’s easy to take Vitamin b12 injections.
What does anemic mean?

Clinical classifications systems of types of anemia

  • Retics, Mcv, and RDW approach.
  • Causing agent approach: the three main types of anemia are due to blood loss, decreased red blood cell production, and increased red blood cell breakdown.
  • Common anemia types by age and condition.

Common types of anemia chart by age:
Types of Children Anemia

  • Anemia due to poor diet.
  • Anemia following the infection by worms such as the Enterobius vermicularis and giardia lambilia.
  • Iron deficiency anemia due to growth demands during childhood and adolescence.
  • Kids born with abnormal hemoglobin diseases such as Sickle cell anemia, thalassemia,

Types of Women Anemia
Mixed Iron deficiency anemia, Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency due to lactation, during pregnancy, and menses.
Old men and women anemia types

  • Anemia due to chronic Inflammation
  • The Anemia due to age diseases such as patients with liver or kidney illness.

Anemia types of any age

  • Anemia due to leukemia and following chemotherapy treatment
  • Prolonged inflammation or long lasting treatment is a causative of anemia
  • Bleeding due to any reason.

What is the difference between hemorrhage and hemolysis?
Hemorrhage means bleeding but hemolysis means red blood cells rupture.

CBC Blood Test system to know the Types of Anemia

The best anemia classification is the system based on the absolute reticulocytes count.
Reticulocytes are cells which newly released from the bone marrow at which cells are made.
Those cells develop after the nucleated red blood cells lose their nucleus at the end of maturation stages, reticulocyte circulate through the bloodstream 1 or 2 days before developing into mature red blood cell.
The absolute reticulocytes count indicates bone marrow regeneration and compensation rate during blood loss and anemia.

What does it mean when I have low hemoglobin level and high reticulocytes count?
Low hemoglobin values mean anemia, and high reticulocytes means how fast bone marrow make new red blood cells instead of the lost ones during bleeding or acute anemia.
As a result, both anemia and high reticulocytes count indicate excessive blood loss, RBCs loss causes include:
Acute hemorrhage such as Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB)) and Cerebral hemorrhage which is a bleeding inside the brain tissue.
Red blood cells Hemolysis, which can be caused through two paths:
1- Intrinsic causes:

  • RBC Membrane defects
  • Hemoglobinopathies
  • Hb E disease/trait
  • Enzyme deficiencies

2- Extrinsic causes:

  • Immune hemolytic anemias
  • Microangiopathic hemolytic anemias (TTP, HUS, DIC)
  • Macroangiopathic hemolytic anemias (traumatic cardiac hemolysis)
  • Infectious agents (malaria, babesiosis)
  • Drugs, chemicals, venoms, extensive burns

What is meaning of low hemoglobin level and low or normal reticulocytes count?

Low hemoglobin always indicate anemia; however low or normal reticulocytes count means decreased or ineffective RBC production by bone marrow.
So that, to know what is the type of anemia that is caused by a faulty red cells production, we should learn another indicator of anemia type which is called MCV.
MCV means mean corpuscular volume and indicates the average size of red blood cells.
First condition: If MCV is low (less than 80 fL),
it means the red cells that produced by bone marrow is small in size which has a medical term “microcytosis”.
The types of microcytic anemia:

  • iron deficiency anemia (IDA) which caused by low iron level in the blood in compared to normal iron levels.
  • inability to utilize iron (chronic inflammatory states),
  • globin synthesis defect (thalassemia Hb E disease/trait),
  • and heme synthesis defect (sideroblastic anemia, lead poisoning).

All microcytic anemia types are caused by conditions that result in reduced hemoglobin synthesis.
Second condition:
When MCV is high (over 100 fL), it means the bone marrow produce red cells that looks larger than normal size of RBCs, the medical term for high MCV is “macrocytosis”
Types of Macrocytic Anemia:

  • Vitamin B12 deficiency caused by Pernicious Anemia.
  • Folate deficiency anemia that is due to malabsorption secondary to inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Aplastic anemia which means bone marrow failure to produce cells.
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome
  • Erythroleukemia
  • Chronic liver disease
  • Some drugs

All megaloblastic anemias are caused by such conditions that impair synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Third Condition:
When MCV results are between 80 and 100 fL, it means normal RBCs size or the CBC test rule out a dimorphic population of microcytes and macrocytes. The medical term for normal MCV is “normocytic”.
The causes of normocytic anemia:
Hemolytic anemia that comes from premature destruction and shortened survival of RBCs, whereas there is elevated reticulocyte count and normal MCV but with elevated RDW.
Have you known the RDW meaning? what is RDW?
Fourth Condition: Decreased RBCs production which characterized by decreased reticulocyte count and normal MCV.
Causes of normocytic anemia with low reticulocytes count

  • Aplastic anemia
  • Anemia of renal disease
  • Myelophthisic anemia
  • Infection (parvovirus B19)
  • Anemia of chronic inflammation

Pathophysiologic Classification of Types of Anemia

Types of anemia by the causative agent of anemia
First type:
Anemia Types which come from Decreased Production of Red Blood Cells
Hematopoietic stem cell failure: acquired and hereditary aplastic anemia.
Functional impairment of erythroid progenitors:

  1. The Disturbance of DNA synthesis: megaloblastic anemia.
  2. Disturbance of hemoglobin synthesis: iron deficiency anemia, thalassemia, sideroblastic anemia, anemia of chronic inflammation.
  3. Proliferation and differentiation of erythroid precursors: anemia of renal failure, anemia associated with marrow infiltration.

Second type:
Anemia Types come from Increased Red Blood Cell Destruction or Loss
Intrinsic abnormality

  1. Membrane defect: hereditary spherocytosis, hereditary elliptocytosis, pyropoikilocytosis, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
  2. Enzyme deficiency: glucose­6­phosphate dehydrogenase defciency, pyruvate kinase deficiency.
  3. Globin abnormality: sickle cell anemia, other hemoglobinopathies .

Extrinsic abnormality

  1. Immune causes: warm­type autoimmune hemolytic anemia, cold agglutinin disease, paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria, transfusion reaction, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.
  2. Nonimmune red blood cell injury: microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic uremic syndrome, Hemolysis, elevated-liver-enzymes-and-low-platelets syndrome (HELLP syndrome), disseminated intravascular coagulation), macroangiopathic hemolytic anemia (traumatic cardiac hemolysis), infectious antigens (malaria, babesiosis, bartonellosis, clostridial sepsis), other injury (chemicals, drugs, venoms, extensive burns)
  3. Blood loss: acute blood loss anemia.

Quick dictionary definition of medical terms used in this article

  • DIC, Disseminated intravascular coagulation;
  • Hb, hemoglobin;
  • HUS, hemolytic uremic syndrome;
  • RBC, red blood cell;
  • TTP, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
  • SCA, Sickle cell Anemia or sickle cell disease.
  • IDA, Iron deficiency anemia or disease.
Summary for different types of anemia:
  • Clinical diagnosis of anemia is based on history, physical examination, signs, symptoms, and laboratory test results.
  • Many anemias have common manifestations.
  • Careful questioning of the patient may reveal contributing factors such as diet, medications, occupational hazards, and bleeding history.
  • A thorough physical examination is valuable in determining the cause of anemia. Some of the areas that should be evaluated are skin, nail beds, eyes, mucosa, lymph nodes, heart, and size of the spleen and liver.
  • Moderate types of anemia may not manifest clinical symptoms if the onset is slow.
  • Severe types of anemia at which the hemoglobin concentration is less than 7 g/dL usually produce symptoms such as pallor, dyspnea, vertigo, headache, muscle weakness, lethargy, hypotension, and tachycardia.
  • Laboratory procedures helpful in the diagnosis of anemia include CBC with RBC indices and RDW, reticulocyte count, examination of the peripheral blood film with emphasis on RBC morphology.

Next:

  • How to know you are anemic?
  • Anemia Levels Chart.
  • Low Iron levels explained.

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Iron Blood Test and Normal Iron Levels Chart by Age

A quick summary of iron blood test:

  • Serum iron blood test measures how much iron inside the body.
  • Ferritin test measures how much iron is stored inside cells.
  • TIBC test (total iron-binding capacity) measures all proteins needed to link iron including transferrin (means the total transferring available).
  • UIBC test (unsaturated iron-binding capacity) measures how much iron for saturation of transferrin.
  • Transferrin saturation is a calculated percentage to tell how much transferrin is full with iron.
  • Morning iron is higher than the rest of the day’s iron levels by 30%.
  • 67% of the body’s iron is inside hemoglobin in red blood cells, other iron is bound to transferrin in blood or ferritin in bone marrow, or stored in more body tissues.
  • 3.5% of the total iron in the body is inside Muscles as myoglobin.
  • 27% of all iron inside cells are stored in Ferritin & hemosiderin.
  • Children and women need more of iron than adult men that’s because children need iron for growth, also woman has menses bleeding every month.


Did You know: What does anemic mean?

Sorry Iron tests is a long story, please bookmark this page and read carefully to understand your case better.

What causes iron deficiency?

You have iron deficiency anemia when your lab results are lower than normal levels as seen in iron blood test results.
Causes of shortage of iron in the body include:

  1. Body lose iron through excessive urination, exfoliating of old skin cells, defecation, and sweating.
  2. Poor diets that has insufficient iron and essential elements.
  3. Imbalanced diet and vegetarian diets only contain non-heme iron, which is difficult for absorption.
  4. Iron uptake problem when you have stomach or intestine diseases.
  5. Losing Iron through intended blood loss through heavy bleeding, injuries, during surgery, or repeated blood drawings.
  6. High demand for iron during pregnancy, breastfeeding, adolescence, and bodybuilding programs.
  7. Excess loss of iron through monthly bleeding in women, gastrointestinal bleeding through ulcers and cancers.

How doctors write iron tests?
Doctors usually write: Fe Tests, Iron Indices, iron test, iron panel, Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++, Ferrous ion, ferrous test, Iron – serum; Anemia – serum iron; Hemochromatosis – serum iron
Iron tests panel include: Serum Iron, Ferritin; TIBC, UIBC and Transferrin; Zinc Protoporphyrin; Complete Blood Count; Hemoglobin; Hematocrit; Reticulocyte Count; Soluble Transferrin Receptor

When to do iron tests?
If you’re complaining of one or more of the following, then you should test for iron deficiency:

  • Fatigue and unexplained weakness are common signs you should test iron.
  • Pale skin, a tingling or crawling feeling in the legs, shortness of breath, and dizziness are signs of severe anemia and marked iron shortage.
  • When a child has strange cravings to eat non-food items, I mean dirt, ice, or clay then it’s the time to know how much iron your kid has.

What is serum iron in blood test?
Serum iron is a medical laboratory test means how much total iron is in your blood, for best evaluation of body’s content of iron the doctor must request all anemia test including; serum iron, TIBC, Ferritin, transferrin, and transferrin saturation tests.
Do you have to fast for an iron blood test?
Here’s what to do before taking a blood test for iron:

  • 8 hours fasting before a blood test for iron, TIBC, or transferrin.
  • Ferritin test don’t need fasting before taking it.
  • Pause iron pills 24 hours before testing time.

Read: all fasting blood test lists.
When to take iron blood test during the day?

  • The best time to do iron tests is in the morning, when iron levels are at highest levels.
  • Serum Iron level has diurnal variation. Morning iron levels are 30% higher than the whole day iron levels, because of Iron fluctuations during the day, serum iron test need more medical tests in order to indicate anemia.
  • Full list: when to take a blood test?

What is the difference between iron and hemoglobin?
In a brief, hemoglobin consists of four iron atoms. Anemia diagnosis made upon measuring the levels of hemoglobin and iron together along with other diagnostic tests.

  • Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries inhaled oxygen from the lungs to the all organs, and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs to exhale.
  • Consists of four protein molecules connected with four atoms of iron that can bind four atoms of oxygen.
  • Iron is a trace element inside the red blood cells and other organs.
  • Building hemoglobin during red cells production process that called hematopoiesis needs Iron.
  • Iron mediates many other biochemical reactions in the body.

Have a look at: Normal hemoglobin levels

Normal Iron Levels Chart by Age

Explain: What is a normal iron level in blood test? what should your iron level be
Normal Ranges for Iron Tests Commonly Used to Assess Anemia (same for male and female, except noted)

Test Normal Ranges Ranges in SI units
Serum Iron for Adult men 70-175 mcg/dL 12.5-31.3 mcmol/L
Serum Iron for Adult women 50-150 mcg/dL 8.9-26.8 mcmol/L
Serum Iron for children 6 mo-2 yr 50-120 mcg/dL 9.0-21.5 mcmol/L
Total iron-binding capacity 250-460 µg/dL 45 – 82 µmol/L
Percent Transferrin saturation for male Male: 30 – 50%
Percent Transferrin saturation for female Female: 20 – 35%
Serum Transferrin 200 – 430 mg/dL 2 – 3.8 g/L
Serum ferritin, male 15-400 ng/mL
Serum ferritin, female 10-106 ng/mL
Serum ferritin, child elder than 1 7 – 140 ng/mL
Free serum hemoglobin 0-10 mg/dL

What causes high iron in the blood test?

Hemochromatosis means too much iron in the body and results are higher than normal ranges.
If the test is correct, the too much iron in the body can make iron toxicity, common causes

  1. Too much blood transfusions will cause iron level decline.
  2. Hemolytic anemia: too much red blood cells destruction.
  3. Cirrhosis or necrosis: Liver tissue death.
  4. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver.
  5. Iron poisoning and more serious complications in people taking iron to lower stress.

Difference between Hemosiderosis and hemochromatosis
Both are iron overload disorders:

  • Hemosidrosis is abnormal deposition of hemosiderin in tissues. Hemosiderin is an iron-containing compound. It’s often associated with frequent blood transfusions in addition to extensive destruction of red blood cells such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
  • Hemochromatosis is an inherited or acquired iron metabolism disorder. Means that the body accumulates more iron than its need and can’t excrete the excess iron, leading to iron overload and dysfunction or failure of several organs; including heart, liver, pancreas. Hemochromatosis increases skin pigmentation that called “bronzing.”

What is the role of Iron in the Body?
Human being depends on a sufficient amount of iron that is must be circulating in our blood stream, iron is needed for:

  1. Moving oxygen around your body, and transport carbon dioxide back to exhalation from lungs.
  2. Haematopoiesis, which is the building process of RBC specifically used inside hemoglobin.
  3. In the conversion of blood sugar to energy, which benefits athlete muscles during exercises.
  4. The production of enzymes inside cells.
  5. Iron contributes to normal cognitive function in children and immune system depends on iron.

What do iron blood test results mean?

The common question between clinicians, medical students, and most people is; what does iron blood test results mean?
What’s the relationship between Iron, ferritin, TIBC, transferrin, and TRSF saturation?

Here’s a clarification based on medical consultations.
Iron and ferritin results meaning:

  • If Iron levels increase, ferritin level increase and transferrin level decrease.
  • If Iron levels decrease, ferritin level decrease and transferrin level increase.

The total iron-binding capacity
It is the amount of iron that is in demand to fully saturate transferrin.

  • Normal TIBC value means 100% transferrin saturation with available iron.
  • Total iron-binding capacity short form is TIBC.
  • TIBC result is a useful marker in diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia and iron deficiency due to chronic disease,
  • Elevated TIBC is an indicative of iron deficiency anemia (IDA).
  • Low TIBC is a marker of anemia that is due to chronic disease.

UIBC is the unsaturated iron binding capacityrepresents the additional amount of iron that can be bound or the empty sites from iron on transferrin protein.
UIBC calculation from the equation: UIBC = TIBC – iron
Transferrin Saturation Percentage is a medical laboratory value represents the saturation ratio of transferrin with iron atoms in the serum.

  • Transferrin Saturation equation: Transferrin Saturation % = ( Serum iron x 100 )/ TIBC
    The actual amount of iron found on transferrin (serum iron) divided by the total amount of iron fully saturated the transferrin (TIBC)
  • The normal range of transferrin saturation % is 20 – 50%.

What does Transferrin saturation% resultss mean?

  • Transferrin saturation% means how much serum iron has links with transferrin.
  • According to normal range, it is normal that the ratio of iron bound to transferrin protein in normal conditions is 20 – 50%, means that 50-70% of transferrin sites normally do not contain iron (empty, unsaturated sites)
  • If Transferrin saturation is less than 20%, then the iron deficiency is more likely.
  • If Transferrin saturation is more than 50%, then the iron overload is more likely.

Example of clarification:
If we assume that transferrin has 200 sites to bind the amount of iron.
If the transferrin has 50 iron atoms bound, and 150 of the sites are empty or not attached to any iron atom, this means that:

  • 50% is the ratio of iron bound to transferrin in the blood = serum Iron value.
  • 25% is the ratio of saturated iron = Transferrin Saturation %.
  • 150 is the empty sites of iron on transferrin = UIBC
  • 200 is the iron required to 100% saturation of transferrin = TIBC

Mentzer index

  • Medical Lab equation.
  • Used for differentiation between iron deficiency anemia and Mediterranean anemia.
  • Mentzer index formula = MCV/ RBCs count

What do Mentzer results mean?

  • Mentzer index that is greater than 13, thus iron deficiency anaemia is more likely.
  • If Mentzer index is lower than 13, thus beta thalassemia is more likely.

Blood tests for anemia include:

  • Complete blood count: includes hemoglobin, hematocrit that means the mass of red blood cells, and red cells count.
  • CBC test includes 4 RBC’s estimated parameters: MCV that represents the size of cells, MCH that means the mass of hemoglobin in all RBCs, MCHC that reflects the density of hemoglobin in each RBC, and RDW estimates the distribution of RBC’s sizes.
  • CBC test is test of choice to monitor anemia level.
  • low hemoglobin levels and low hematocrit means Anemia.
  • Doctors usually request iron blood test after discovering there is anemia in CBC results.

Haven’t know What is RBC?
Reticulocyte count (Retics):

  • Measures absolute count or percentage of reticulocytes in a stained smear of a blood sample.
  • The final stage of immature red blood cells is the Reticulocytes.
  • Reticulocytes count means how much bone marrow is compensating red cells loss.

What does reticulocyte count results mean?

  • Low Reticulocyte count in iron deficiency anemia and increase to the normal range after a course of treatment.
  • High Reticulocyte count in hemolytic anemia.

What is your Iron blood test results?