What does hCG means?
In molecular biology, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the the fertilized egg within the syncytiotrophoblast which later develops to the placenta.
In biochemistry: HCG is shortcut to Human chorionic gonadotropiand n is a glycoprotein composed of 237 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25.7 kDa
The alpha subunit is the same one used by other sex/pituitary hormones: FSH, LH, and TSH. The beta subunit, though, is unique to HCG and that’s why pregnancy tests look for the presence of beta-HCG.
LH hormone produced in the pituitary gland of males and females of all ages and resemble HCG in its structure.
What does β beta subunit means?
HCG hormone is heterodimeric protein, with an α (alpha) subunit identical to that of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and β (beta) subunit that is unique to hCG.
Learn when to take pregnancy test?
What is the blood tests measure hcg beta subunit levels?
In the medical Lab ask for a test called one of these:
Measurement of serum total human chorionic gonadotrophin
Measurement of serum total human chorionic gonadotropin
Serum total HCG level
Serum total HCG measurement
Serum total human chorionic gonadotrophin measurement
Serum total human chorionic gonadotropin measurement
What does the hcg hormone do?
Is urine pregnancy test is accurate or the blood test?
Because of its similarity to LH, hCG can also be used clinically to induce ovulation in the ovaries as well as testosterone production in the testes.
Best and accurate methods to test for beta subunit hCG level:
B-HCG detected in Blood or urine samples for qualitative measurement of hCG. hCG levels are also a component of the triple test, a screening test for certain fetal chromosomal abnormalities/birth defects.
Triple test contains these tests: Alpha-fetoprotein radioimmunoassay, Chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit measurement, Estradiol measurement, and Serum progesterone measurement
Chemical assays can detect “all known forms of hCG and its break down products present in serum and urine samples in pregnancy, cancer and trophoblastic disease: regular hCG, nicked hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, hCG missing the ß-subunit C-terminal peptide, free ß-subunit, nicked free ß-subunit, free ß-subunit missing the CTP, and urine ß-core fragment.” All of these are variations/mutations in HCG.
Urine Pregnancy test:
The most sensitive urine tests usually detect hCG between 6 and 12 days post ovulation.
Pregnancy urine dipstick tests are based on the lateral flow technique depending on the brand of test, the detection thresholds range from 20 to 100 mIU/ml, also urine tests may be found as chromatographic immunoassay methods or other test formats, home baby check tests, physician’s office pregnancy tests, or laboratory-based rapid tests.
more accurate results may be obtained by using the first urine of the morning (when hCG levels are highest). When the urine is dilute (specific gravity less than 1.015), the hCG concentration may not be representative of the blood concentration, and the test may be falsely negative.
Blood pregnancy tests:
By drawing a blood sample usually 2-4 mL of venous blood and test serum for b-hCG level.
Blood quantitive test for beta-subunit hCG use techniques called a chemiluminescent or fluorimetric immunoassay technqiues that can detect βhCG levels as low as 5 mIU/ml and allows high accurate quantification of the βhCG concentration.
Many hCG immunoassays are based on the sandwich principle, which uses antibodies to hCG labeled with an enzyme or a conventional or luminescent dye.
When test gives two lines it means Positive even though the 2nd line was really faint, you could barely see it and also considered Positive.
Interpretations of hcg beta subunit levels:
Serum quantitative HCG measurement is the most accurate than urine, but many error factors could alter the results.
The chart of hCG levels can give sharp indicators of progression of pregnancy.
False Positive and false negative results:
for a woman whoever 28 to 32 day period cycles ovulation we get the place between days 11 through 21 don't forget it…