We are talking about what is considered from normal PSA levels and what is considered abnormal PSA test results.
What should a man’s PSA be?
Remember that PSA is a blood test for cancer of prostate, and the most specific early tumor marker for prostate, PSA results is accurate 99.99%.
What is the safe acceptable PSA range?
Prostate gland cells produce prostate specific antigen for liquefying the human semen, all PSA amount is excreted into seminal fluid except very small amount which escape to the blood stream, normally PSA found in the blood with a steady low level, the Normal PSA physiologically is to show PSA results less than 4.0, the less is better, and this means healthy production and healthy excretion of Prostate specific antigen by the prostate gland.
What is Normal PSA levels and normal range?
Normal range for PSA results in young men is 4 – 10, in elder men is slightly higher.
In order to know the correct interpretation of PSA blood test results, you must know the values caused by a cancer and the values caused by other reasons.
There is agreement on the normal PSA levels of men as follows:
Normal PSA level is from 4.0 – 10.0 ng/ml, sometimes called “the grey zone”.
Is an indicator of prostate cancer (25% chance, according to the ACS), or other benign condition in the elderly such as benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), or just inflammation of the prostate.
Free PSA blood test is required for confirmation whether it’s a cancer or not.
Free PSA is the form of prostate specific antigen that is produced by benign cells of prostate gland, finding 10% of total PSA as Free is acceptable for healthy men. The lower the riskier.
Benign prostate tumors normally show Free PSA percentage higher than 10%.
Carcinogen cells reducing free PSA percentage to less than 10% and raise the values of total PSA due to the increasing of complexed PSA by cancer cells, from PSA blood test explained
Low PSA level, what does it mean?
The normal PSA level is 0 but it can rise to up 4 with infection or other minor issues.
A PSA of 0.6 is good and would not normally need further blood tests.
PSA 1.0 is lower than men limit of PSA but is still not a cancer marker.
If you have prostate cancer already and have had treatment, then 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 is still nothing serious to worry about.
The same is applied for PSA 2.0 or 3.0: means you’re a cancer free or have your treatment course succeeded and lowered the PSA percentage.
A problem with prostate production of prostate specific antigen can lead to very low PSA level.
Diminished free PSA with normal PSA total is not fully understood.
Here is simple explanation of normal values of prostate specific antigen, according to many studies on men with cancers and other men without a cancer. Show list of: blood test for cancer?
PSA level 4, what does it mean?
PSA 4 is a cutoff value for men, and the lower limit of normal PSA levels, usually means nothing.
PSA level 4 is either normal or abnormal level and it could mean many things, including:
You’re a normal, and your PSA level is acceptable, nothing to worry about.
Men who have their prostate gland feels normal on digital examination and their PSA level 4, they are likely to have prostate cancer with a percentage less than 15% and non-cancerous causes with a percentage of more than 85%
You are on cancer treatment which lowering your PSA results.
You have a mild infection to your prostate gland, a course of antibiotics is recommended to exclude UTI causes.
PSA level 5, what does it mean?
Men who have a prostate gland that feels normal after digital rectal examination and a PSA from four to ten have a 25% chance of having prostate cancer. And more than 75% chances of another non-cancerous causes.
Is a PSA level of 5 high?
Firstly, testing procedure is preferred to done at one laboratory at each time, as the normal value may vary among different assays.
Secondly, to evaluate the meaning of PSA count 5, we must look to the age of the man, if older than 40 then level 5 may be normal for such age
But values above 4.0 are considered suspicious PSA count as the normal PSA values does not exclude cancer.
A watchful period starts, and you are recommended to do PSA blood testing periodically to ensure that the results stay at this low level or increasing.
Now you know that is PSA 5 is form the normal PSA levels and not a high PSA level, and you have not to be concerned about getting cancer, especially when you under age 40 and has no cancer history in your family.
If Yes, then confirm the test results by repeating the PSA test many time over 3 months, then free PSA test to confirm the increasing numbers of total PSA test, if ALL that say Yes, then a biopsy sent to a pathologist is must.
What is the meaning of PSA level 6?
The PSA level 6 is a grey zone number, however the men over 50 may show PSA 6 as their normal value due to their advanced age.
PSA 6 has many other possibilities:
Infection to prostate gland, as the PSA still under level 10.
PSA 6 after repetition of the blood test mean physiological causes and not a cancer marker.
Bacterial infection which begins in the urinary system can cause slightly elevated PSA results, a urine test and DRE is recommended.
PSA level 7 and PSA level 8 meaning:
PSA levels over 6 and under 10 including the PSA 9.0 is very tricky results, need to be handled carefully, a clever doctor must order both free PSA test and PSA test, the laboratory report come with a calculated FREE PSA/total PSA ratio, a ratio which used as a strong marker for prostate cancer and help to decide if biopsy is needed or not?
However benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in elders may show PSA level of 7 or 9 as well in early stage.
Non-pathological causes show raised PSA levels as after sexual ejaculation which normally increase the chance of PSA entering blood circulation.
After DRE also a sensitization is made on the gland to excrete semen, which not a marker of a disease and can be mistaken.
Catheter installation or removal can cause slightly raised serum prostate specific antigen and thus a false result.
Normal PSA levels are values that must be taken carefully, interpretation of normal ranges must be with the correlation of other confirmatory tests and exams. however annual checkup is recommended.
Low PSA level below 4.0 ng/ml does not indicate the presence of prostate cancer or not.
High PSA levels over 10.0 ng/ml is an indicator of the presence of prostate cancer with 50% chance according to ACS.
A PSA level of 10-14 may be due to an inflamed prostate and not a cancer marker unless the biopsy results show other than that.
The explanations in this article written for ordinary people who need help to understand their blood test results, while they are on their way for diagnosis or treatment by a specialist, not for medical student.
Next is: What does borderline PSA levels mean?
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